DEF 14A
0001494259DEF 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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

SCHEDULE 14A

(RULE 14a-101)

INFORMATION REQUIRED IN PROXY STATEMENT

SCHEDULE 14A INFORMATION

Proxy Statement Pursuant to Section 14(a) of the

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Filed by the Registrant ☒ Filed by a Party other than the Registrant ☐

Check the appropriate box:

Preliminary Proxy Statement

 

 

Confidential, for Use of the Commission Only (as permitted by Rule 14a-6(e)(2))

 

 

Definitive Proxy Statement

 

 

Definitive Additional Materials

 

 

Soliciting Material under § 240.14a-12

CARGURUS, INC.

(Name of Registrant as Specified In Its Charter)

(Name of Person(s) Filing Proxy Statement, if other than the Registrant)

 

Payment of Filing Fee (Check all boxes that apply):

 

 

No fee required

 

 

Fee paid previously with preliminary materials

 

 

Fee computed on table in exhibit required by Item 25(b) per Exchange Act Rules 14a-6(i)(1) and 0-11


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April 26, 2023

Dear Stockholder:

You are cordially invited to attend the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of CarGurus, Inc. (the "Annual Meeting"), which will be held virtually on Tuesday, June 6, 2023 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time, conducted via live audio webcast at www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023.

Pursuant to the Securities and Exchange Commission rules that allow issuers to furnish proxy materials to stockholders over the internet, we are posting the proxy materials on the internet and delivering to our stockholders a Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials. This delivery process will allow us to provide stockholders with the information they need quickly and efficiently, while lowering the costs of delivery and reducing the environmental impact of the Annual Meeting. On or about April 26, 2023, we will begin mailing to our stockholders a Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials containing instructions on how to access or request a copy of our Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.

The Notice of Annual Meeting of Stockholders and the Proxy Statement contain details of the business to be conducted at the Annual Meeting.

Your vote is important. Whether or not you plan to attend the Annual Meeting, we hope you will vote as soon as possible. You may vote over the internet, by telephone or by mailing a proxy card. Voting over the internet, by telephone or by written proxy will ensure your representation at the Annual Meeting regardless of whether or not you attend. Please review the instructions in the proxy materials regarding each of these voting options.

Thank you for your ongoing support of CarGurus.

Very truly yours,

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Jason Trevisan

Chief Executive Officer and Director


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CARGURUS, INC.

2 Canal Park, 4th Floor

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141 USA

NOTICE OF ANNUAL MEETING OF STOCKHOLDERS

To Be Held on June 6, 2023

The 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of CarGurus, Inc. (the "Annual Meeting") will be held on Tuesday, June 6, 2023 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time. The Annual Meeting will be a virtual stockholder meeting, conducted via live audio webcast, through which you can submit questions and vote online, just as you could at an in-person meeting. We believe that a virtual stockholder meeting provides greater access for those who may want to attend the Annual Meeting and therefore we have chosen this approach over an in-person meeting.

The Annual Meeting can be accessed by visiting www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023 and entering your 16-digit control number (included in the Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials mailed to you). At the Annual Meeting, stockholders will consider and act upon the following matters:

1.
To elect the Class III director nominated by our Board of Directors to serve for a term ending in 2026, or until his successor has been duly elected and qualified;
2.
To ratify the appointment of Ernst & Young LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as our independent auditors for the year ending December 31, 2023;
3.
To conduct a non-binding advisory vote to approve the compensation of our Named Executive Officers for 2022; and
4.
To transact such other business as may properly come before the Annual Meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof.

Stockholders of record on our books at the close of business on April 12, 2023, the record date for the Annual Meeting, are entitled to notice of, and to vote at, the Annual Meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof. For instructions on how to vote your shares, please refer to the instructions on the Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials you received in the mail, the question and answer titled "How do I vote?" beginning on page 2 of this Proxy Statement or, if you requested to receive printed proxy materials, your enclosed proxy card. If your shares are held in "street name," that is, held for your account by a broker or other nominee, you will receive instructions from the holder of record that you must follow for your shares to be voted.

A list of stockholders entitled to vote at the Annual Meeting will be available for examination by any stockholder for any purpose relevant to the Annual Meeting for at least ten days prior to June 6, 2023.

Whether or not you plan to attend the Annual Meeting, we urge you to take the time to read our proxy materials and vote your shares.

By Order of the Board of Directors,

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Javier Zamora

General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

April 26, 2023

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

1

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE ANNUAL MEETING AND VOTING

2

IMPORTANT NOTICE REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF PROXY MATERIALS

7

BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND MANAGEMENT

8

Information Regarding Directors and Director Nominees

8

Corporate Governance Matters

13

Code of Conduct

13

Corporate Governance Guidelines

13

Board of Directors Determination of Independence and Status as a “Controlled Company”

14

Director Nomination Process

14

Board Diversity Matrix

16

Board of Directors Meetings and Attendance

16

Board of Directors Leadership Structure

16

Board of Directors Committees

17

Board of Directors Role in Risk Oversight

19

People and Talent

19

Communicating with our Board of Directors

21

Information About Our Executive Officers

22

AUDIT COMMITTEE REPORT

24

EXECUTIVE AND DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND RELATED MATTERS

25

Compensation Discussion and Analysis

25

Executive Compensation

39

Executive Employment Arrangements

46

CEO Pay Ratio Disclosure

49

Pay versus Performance

49

Director Compensation

54

COMPENSATION COMMITTEE REPORT

57

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

58

Policies and Procedures for Related Person Transactions

58

Related Person Transactions

58

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

59

SECTION 16(A) BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP REPORTING COMPLIANCE

61

EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION

62

PROPOSAL 1 ELECTION OF DIRECTORS

63

PROPOSAL 2 RATIFICATION OF APPOINTMENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

64

PROPOSAL 3 NON-BINDING ADVISORY VOTE TO APPROVE THE COMPENSATION OF OUR NAMED EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

65

OTHER MATTERS

66

Stockholder Proposals for 2024 Annual Meeting

66

Householding of Proxy Materials

66

Miscellaneous

67

APPENDIX A: Proxy Card

A-1


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This proxy statement contains forward‑looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward‑looking statements generally relate to future events or our future financial or operating performance. In some cases, you can identify forward‑looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “target,” "goal," “will,” “would,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms.

 

Forward-looking statements contained in this proxy statement include, but are not limited to, statements about the matters discussed regarding the expectation of performance under our compensation plans, our anticipated financial and operational performance, the plans and objectives of management, and our expectation to increase the size of our board and to do so with diverse candidates. You should not rely upon forward‑looking statements as predictions of future events. The outcome of the events described in these forward‑looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our annual report on Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward‑looking statements contained in this proxy statement. Further, our forward‑looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions or joint ventures in which we may be involved, or investments we may make. We cannot assure you that the results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward‑looking statements will be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward‑looking statements.

 

The forward‑looking statements made in this proxy statement relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward‑looking statement made in this proxy statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this proxy statement or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law.
 

 

1


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CARGURUS, INC.

2 Canal Park, 4th Floor

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141 USA

PROXY STATEMENT

For the Annual Meeting of Stockholders on June 6, 2023

This Proxy Statement and related materials are being furnished to you on the internet, or at your request a printed version will be delivered to you by mail, in connection with the solicitation of proxies by our Board of Directors ("Board of Directors") for use at the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "Annual Meeting") to be held virtually on Tuesday, June 6, 2023 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time, and at any adjournment or postponement thereof. You are entitled to vote if you were a stockholder of record as of the close of business on April 12, 2023. As used in this Proxy Statement, the terms "CarGurus," "the Company," "we," "us," and "our" mean CarGurus, Inc. unless the context indicates otherwise.

We are providing access to our proxy materials primarily on the internet. Commencing on or around April 26, 2023, we mailed a Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials (the "Notice") to each stockholder. The Notice contains instructions on how to access our proxy materials and how to vote. If you would like to receive a paper or email copy of our proxy materials, please follow the instructions in the Notice. If you requested printed versions of these materials by mail, the materials will include a proxy card for the Annual Meeting.

All proxies will be voted in accordance with the instructions contained in those proxies. If no choice is specified, the proxies will be voted for the Class III director nominee and in favor of Proposals 2 and 3.

We are first making available this Proxy Statement and the accompanying proxy card to stockholders on or about April 26 2023.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE ANNUAL MEETING AND VOTING

Q. Why did I receive these proxy materials?

A. We are providing these proxy materials to you in connection with the solicitation by our Board of Directors of proxies to be voted at the Annual Meeting to be held virtually on Tuesday, June 6, 2023 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time.

Q. What proposals am I voting on?

A. There are three proposals scheduled for a vote:

Proposal 1: the election of the Class III director;
Proposal 2: the ratification of the selection of Ernst & Young LLP ("Ernst & Young") as our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ending December 31, 2023; and
Proposal 3: a non-binding advisory vote to approve the compensation of our Named Executive Officers for 2022.

Q. Who can vote at the Annual Meeting?

A. Our Board of Directors has fixed April 12, 2023 as the record date for the Annual Meeting. If you were a stockholder of record as of the close of business on the record date, you are entitled to vote (including by proxy) all of the shares that you held on that date at the Annual Meeting and at any postponement or adjournment thereof. On the record date, we had 98,181,957 shares of Class A common stock outstanding (each of which entitles its holder to one vote per share) and 15,999,173 shares of Class B common stock outstanding (each of which entitles its holder to ten votes per share).

Q. How do I attend the Annual Meeting?

A. The Annual Meeting will be held virtually on Tuesday, June 6, 2023 at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time. The Annual Meeting will be a virtual stockholder meeting, conducted via live audio webcast, through which you can submit questions and vote online. The Annual Meeting can be accessed by visiting www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023 and entering your 16-digit control number (included on the Notice mailed to you). Information on how to vote during the Annual Meeting is discussed below.

2


Q. Can I attend the Annual Meeting in person?

A. We will be hosting the Annual Meeting via live audio webcast on the internet. You will not be able to attend the meeting in person. Any stockholder can listen to the Annual Meeting live via the internet at www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023, where you can also vote online. The webcast will start at 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time, on June 6, 2023, but we encourage stockholders to access the Annual Meeting online prior to its scheduled start time. Stockholders may vote while connected to the Annual Meeting on the internet. In order to do so, you will need the 16-digit control number included on the Notice mailed to you. Please be aware that you bear any costs associated with your internet access, such as usage charges from internet access providers and telephone companies. If you have any technical difficulties or any questions regarding the virtual meeting website, please call the support team at the numbers listed on the log-in screen.

Q. Can I ask questions during the Annual Meeting?

A. Yes. Stockholders may submit questions during the Annual Meeting via the internet at www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023 after logging in with the 16-digit control number included on the Notice mailed to you. We will endeavor to answer as many questions pertinent to Annual Meeting matters as time permits, but we do not intend to address any questions that are not pertinent to Annual Meeting matters. Questions that are substantially similar may be grouped, summarized and answered together to avoid repetition.

Q. If I am unable to attend the virtual Annual Meeting, can I listen to the Annual Meeting by telephone?

A. No. The Annual Meeting is only accessible via the live audio webcast at www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023. If you are unable to join the live audio webcast, a recording will be available on www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com within 24 hours after the meeting concludes.

Q. What happens if the meeting is postponed or adjourned?

A. Your proxy may be voted at the postponed or adjourned meeting. You will still be able to change your proxy until it is voted.

Q. How do I vote?

A. If your shares are registered directly in your name, you may vote:

(1) Over the Internet: Go to the website of our tabulator, Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc. ("Broadridge"), at www.proxyvote.com. Use the vote control number printed on your Notice to access your account and vote your shares. You must specify how you want your shares voted, otherwise your internet vote cannot be completed, and you will receive an error message. Your shares will be voted according to your instructions. You must submit your internet proxy before 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on June 5, 2023, the day before the Annual Meeting, for your proxy to be valid and your vote to count.

(2) By Telephone: Call 1-800-690-6903, toll free from the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, and follow the recorded instructions. You must specify how you want your shares voted and confirm your vote at the end of the call, otherwise your telephone vote cannot be completed. Your shares will be voted according to your instructions. You must submit your telephonic proxy before 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on June 5, 2023, the day before the Annual Meeting, for your proxy to be valid and your vote to count.

(3) By Mail: If you requested printed copies of the proxy materials, complete, date and sign your enclosed proxy card and mail it in the enclosed postage prepaid envelope to Broadridge. Your shares will be voted according to your instructions. Broadridge must receive the proxy card not later than June 5, 2023, the day before the Annual Meeting, for your proxy to be valid and your vote to count.

If you mail in your proxy card but do not specify how you want your shares voted, they will be voted as recommended by our Board of Directors.

(4) During the Annual Meeting via www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023: You may attend the Annual Meeting via the internet and vote during the Annual Meeting. Please have your Notice in hand when you access the website and then follow the instructions.

If your shares are held in "street name," meaning they are held for your account by a broker or other nominee, you may vote:

(1) Over the Internet or by Telephone: You will receive instructions from your broker or other nominee if they permit internet or telephonic voting. You should follow those instructions.

(2) By Mail: You will receive instructions from your broker or other nominee explaining how you can vote your shares by mail. You should follow those instructions.

(3) During the Annual Meeting via www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023: You may contact your broker or other nominee who holds your shares to obtain a broker’s proxy. A broker’s proxy is not the form of proxy enclosed with this Proxy

3


Statement. You will not be able to vote shares you hold in street name via the internet during the Annual Meeting unless you have a proxy from your broker or other nominee issued in your name giving you the right to vote your shares.

Q. Can I change my vote or revoke my proxy?

A. If your shares are registered directly in your name, you may revoke your proxy and change your vote before or during the Annual Meeting. To do so, you must do one of the following:

(1) Vote over the internet or by telephone as instructed above. Only your latest internet or telephone vote is counted. You may not change your vote over the internet or by telephone after 11:59 p.m. eastern time, on June 5, 2023.

(2) Sign a new proxy and submit it by mail as instructed above. Only your latest dated proxy that was received by Broadridge by June 5, 2023 will be counted.

(3) Attend the Annual Meeting via www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/CARG2023 and vote again.

If your shares are held in street name, you may submit new voting instructions by contacting your broker or other nominee. You may also vote online during the Annual Meeting if you obtain a broker’s proxy as described in the answer above.

Q. Will my shares be voted if I do not return my proxy?

A. If your shares are registered directly in your name, your shares will not be voted if you do not vote over the internet, by telephone, by returning your proxy or by voting online during the Annual Meeting.

If your shares are held in street name, your broker or other nominee may, under certain circumstances, vote your shares if you do not timely return your proxy. Brokers and other nominees can vote their customers’ unvoted shares on "routine" matters but cannot vote such shares on "non-routine" matters. If you do not timely return a proxy to your broker or other nominee to vote your shares, your broker or other nominee may, on "routine" matters, either vote your shares or leave your shares unvoted.

The election of directors (Proposal 1) and the non-binding advisory vote on the compensation of our Named Executive Officers (Proposal 3) are non-discretionary matters. The ratification of the appointment of our independent auditors (Proposal 2) is a discretionary matter.

We encourage you to provide voting instructions to your broker or other nominee. This ensures that your shares will be voted at the Annual Meeting according to your instructions.

Q. How many shares must be present to hold the Annual Meeting?

A. Shares representing a majority of the votes applicable to all of our shares of common stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote must be present to hold the Annual Meeting and conduct business. This is called a quorum. For purposes of determining whether a quorum exists, we count as present any shares that are voted over the internet, by telephone or by completion and submission of a proxy or that are represented virtually at the Annual Meeting. Further, for purposes of establishing a quorum, we will count as present shares that a stockholder holds even if the stockholder votes to withhold or abstain or votes on only one of the proposals. In addition, broker non-votes will count as present in determining whether there is a quorum. If a quorum is not present, we expect to adjourn the Annual Meeting until we obtain a quorum.

Q. What is a broker non-vote?

 

A. "Broker non-votes" occur when a beneficial owner of shares held in street name fails to provide instructions to the broker or other nominee holding the shares as to how to vote on matters deemed "non-routine." If the beneficial owner does not provide voting instructions, the broker or other nominee cannot vote the shares with respect to "non-routine" matters, such as the election of directors, or the non-binding, advisory approval of the compensation of our named executive officers, but can vote the shares with respect to "routine" matters, which include the ratification of the appointment of an independent registered public accounting firm. Therefore, if you do not instruct your broker how to vote on Proposals 1 and 3, your shares will not be counted for those proposals. We urge you to give voting instructions to your broker on all voting items.

Q. What vote is required to approve each proposal and how are votes counted?

A. Proposal 1 – Election of the Class III Director

The nominee for the Class III director receiving the highest number of votes FOR election will be elected as director. This is called a plurality. Proposal 1 is a non-routine matter. Therefore, if your shares are held in street name and you do not instruct your broker or other nominee how to vote your shares on Proposal 1, your broker or other nominee cannot vote your shares on Proposal 1. Shares held in street name by brokers or nominees who indicate on their proxies that they do not have authority to

4


vote the shares on Proposal 1 will not be counted as votes FOR or WITHHELD from any nominee and will be treated as "broker non-votes." Broker non-votes will have no effect on the voting on Proposal 1. Since there is only one Class III director nominated for re-election, with respect to Proposal 1, you may:

vote FOR the one nominee; or
WITHHOLD your vote from the one nominee.

Votes that are withheld will not be included in the vote tally for Proposal 1 and will not affect the results of the vote.

Proposal 2 – Ratification of Appointment of Registered Accounting Firm

To approve Proposal 2, the affirmative vote of a majority of votes applicable to the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the matter must vote FOR the proposal. Proposal 2 is a routine matter. Therefore, if your shares are held in street name and you do not instruct your broker or other nominee how to vote your shares, your broker or other nominee may vote your shares on Proposal 2. If you vote to ABSTAIN on Proposal 2, your shares will not be voted FOR or AGAINST the proposal and will also not be counted as votes cast or shares voting on the proposal. Voting to ABSTAIN will have no effect on the voting on Proposal 2.

Although stockholder approval of our Audit Committee’s appointment of Ernst & Young as our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ending December 31, 2023 is not required, we believe that it is advisable to give stockholders an opportunity to ratify this appointment. As an advisory vote, this proposal is not binding. The outcome of this advisory vote will not overrule any decision by us or our Board of Directors (or any committee thereof). However, if this proposal is not approved at the Annual Meeting, our Audit Committee may reconsider its appointment of Ernst & Young as our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ending December 31, 2023.

Proposal 3 – Non-Binding Advisory Vote to Approve the Compensation of Our Named Executive Officers for 2022

To approve Proposal 3, the affirmative vote of a majority of votes applicable to the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the matter must vote FOR the proposal. Proposal 3 is a non-routine matter. If your shares are held in street name and you do not instruct your broker or other nominee how to vote your shares, your broker or other nominee cannot vote your shares on Proposal 3. Therefore, voting to ABSTAIN and broker non-votes will have no effect on the outcome of this proposal.

Advisory votes on the compensation of our Named Executive Officers are non-binding; however, as described in more detail in Proposal 3, our Board of Directors and Compensation Committee will review and consider the outcome of this vote when making future decisions regarding our executive compensation program.

Q. How does the Board of Directors recommend that I vote?

A. Our Board of Directors unanimously recommends that you vote your shares:

"FOR" the nominee for election as director listed in Proposal 1;
"FOR" the ratification of the appointment of Ernst & Young as our independent registered public accounting firm for the year ending December 31, 2023; and
"FOR" the approval, on a non-binding advisory basis, of the compensation of our Named Executive Officers for 2022.

Q. How many votes do I have?

A. On each matter to be voted upon, you have one vote for each share of Class A common stock and ten votes for each share of Class B common stock you owned as of April 12, 2023. The Class A common stock and Class B common stock will vote together as a single class on all proposals described in this Proxy Statement.

Q. Are there other matters to be voted on at the Annual Meeting?

A. We do not know of any matters that may come before the Annual Meeting other than the election of the Class III director, the ratification of the appointment of our independent registered public accounting firm and the non-binding advisory vote to approve the compensation of our Named Executive Officers for 2022. If any other matters are properly presented at the Annual Meeting, the persons named in the accompanying proxy will vote, and otherwise act, in accordance with their judgment on the matter.

Q. Is my vote confidential?

A. Proxy instructions, ballots, and voting tabulations that identify individual stockholders are handled in a manner that protects your voting privacy. Your vote will not be disclosed either within CarGurus or to third parties, except as necessary to meet

5


applicable legal requirements, to allow for the tabulation of votes and certification of the vote, or to facilitate a successful proxy solicitation.

Q. Where can I find the voting results?

A. We will report the voting results in a Current Report on Form 8-K within four business days following the adjournment of the Annual Meeting.

Q. What are the costs of soliciting these proxies?

A. We will bear all expenses of this solicitation, including the cost of preparing and mailing these proxy materials. Directors, officers and employees of CarGurus may also solicit proxies in person or by other means of communication. Such directors, officers and employees will not be additionally compensated but may be reimbursed for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses in connection with such solicitation. We may engage the services of a professional proxy solicitation firm to aid in the solicitation of proxies from certain brokers, bank nominees and other institutional owners. Our costs for such services, if retained, will not be significant.

Q. Who may I contact if I have any additional questions?

A. If you hold your shares directly, please call the Company’s Legal Department at (617) 354-0068. If your shares are held in street name, please contact the telephone number provided on your voting instruction form or contact your broker or nominee holder directly.

 

6


IMPORTANT NOTICE REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF PROXY MATERIALS

For the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders on June 6, 2023

This Proxy Statement and the 2022 Annual Report to Stockholders are available for viewing, printing and downloading at www.proxyvote.com.

A copy of our Annual Report on Form 10-K (including financial statements and schedules) for the year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") except for exhibits, will be furnished without charge to any stockholder after written or verbal request to:

 

CarGurus, Inc.

Attn: Investor Relations

2 Canal Park, 4th Floor

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141 USA

Telephone: +1 (617) 354-0068

This Proxy Statement and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 are also available on the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov.

 

7


BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND MANAGEMENT

Information Regarding Directors and Director Nominee

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for the classification of our Board of Directors into three classes, with the terms of service of the three classes staggered so that the term of one class expires each year.

On January 11, 2023, Yvonne Hao ("Ms. Hao") resigned from her position on our Board of Directors and a vacancy was created among our Class II directors. Our Board of Directors voted to reduce the size of the board by one seat on April 24, 2023 and, accordingly, our Board of Directors now consists of seven directors. Class I currently consists of Lori Hickok, Greg Schwartz and Jason Trevisan, each with a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2024. Class II currently consists of Steven Conine and Stephen Kaufer, each with a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2025. Class III currently consists of Ian Smith and Langley Steinert, each with a term expiring at the Annual Meeting.

At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors are elected for a full term of three years to continue or succeed those directors whose terms are expiring. Our Board of Directors has nominated Mr. Steinert for election at the Annual Meeting as the Class III director, to serve for a term ending in 2026, or until his successor has been duly elected and qualified.

On April 21, 2023, Mr. Smith notified the Board of Directors that he would not stand for re-election to the Board of Directors when his current term expires at the company’s 2023 Annual Meeting. As a result, our Board of Directors voted to reduce the size of our board by one seat, effective as of the Annual Meeting. Mr. Smith has faithfully served our Board of Directors and brought tremendous value and insight to our company for nearly 15 years and we are grateful for his service. Our Board of Directors intends to seek additional members and currently intends to expand its size following the Annual Meeting with members who we expect will bring relevant expertise, and diversity of experience and representation.

Director Qualifications

The following table and biographical descriptions provide information as of April 1, 2023 relating to each director (other than Mr. Smith) and the director nominee, including each director’s age and period of service as a member of our Board of Directors; Board of Directors committee memberships; business experience during the past five years, including directorships at other public companies; and the other experience, qualifications, attributes or skills that led our Board of Directors to conclude such person should serve as a director of our company:

 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Steven

Conine

Lori

Hickok

Stephen

Kaufer

Greg

Schwartz

Langley

Steinert

Jason

Trevisan

Current Occupation

Co-Founder at Wayfair Inc.

N/A

Co-Founder and Consultant at Trip Advisor, Inc.

CEO, Co-Founder and Chairman of the Board at Tomo Networks, Inc.

Founder and Executive Chairman at CarGurus

CEO at CarGurus, Inc.

Skills & Experience

Independent

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Financial Reporting; Accounting; Taxation

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

Audit Committee Financial Expert

Additional Information

Board Class/

Term Ends

Class II

2025

Class I

2024

Class II

2025

Class I

2024

Class III

2026*

Class I

2024

Age

50

59

60

50

59

48

Tenure

4

4

15

5

17

2

Current Other Public Company Directorships

Wayfair Inc. (Co-Chairman)

1stDibs.com, Inc.

Trip Advisor, Inc.

None

None

None

 

 

Director Nominee

8


 

Continuing Director

* If elected at the 2023 Annual Meeting

The  indicates that the item is a specific qualification, skill or experience that the director or director nominee brings to our Board of Directors. The lack of  for a particular item does not mean that the director or director nominee does not possess that qualification, characteristic, skill or experience. We expect each director to be knowledgeable in several of these areas.

For the Nasdaq Board Diversity Matrix, see "Board Diversity Matrix" on page 15.

 

 

9


BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Class I Directors

(term expiring 2024)

Lori Hickok

Director Since: August 2018

Age: 59

 

Committees

Audit – Chair

 

Other Public Company Boards

1stdibs.com, Inc. (Nasdaq: DIBS)

Key Skills and Experience

Independent

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Financial Reporting; Accounting; Taxation

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

Audit Committee Financial Expert

 

Ms. Hickok has served as a member of our Board of Directors since August 2018. Ms. Hickok was the Executive Vice President, Chief Financial and Development Officer for Scripps Networks Interactive, Inc. ("Scripps"), a leading developer of engaging lifestyle content in the home, food and travel categories for television, the internet and emerging platforms, from July 2017 until April 2018. Prior to that time, she served as Scripps’s Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer from March 2015 until June 2017, and Executive Vice President, Finance from July 2008 until February 2015. Prior to Scripps’s spin off from The E.W. Scripps Company ("E.W. Scripps") on July 1, 2008, Ms. Hickok served for six years as E.W. Scripps’s Vice President and Corporate Controller. She first joined E.W. Scripps in 1988, as a financial analyst in the corporate finance department, and held positions as the Chief Analyst for Corporate Development, New Media Operations Controller and Divisional Controller for E.W. Scripps’s former cable television systems division, which merged in 1996 with Comcast Corporation. Ms. Hickok serves on the Board of Directors of 1stdibs.com, Inc., an online marketplace for luxury design products, a position she has held since June 2021. She also serves on the Board of Directors of the Second Harvest Food Bank of East Tennessee. A retired Certified Public Accountant, Ms. Hickok received a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting & Finance from Miami University.

We believe Ms. Hickok is qualified to serve as a member of our Board of Directors because of her extensive finance and accounting background, including as an executive officer at a public company, and her experience as an executive in the media and internet industries.

 

10


Greg Schwartz

Director Since: March 2018

Age: 50

 

Committees

Audit

 

Key Skills and Experience

Independent

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

 

Mr. Schwartz has served as a member of our Board of Directors since March 2018. Mr. Schwartz is the co-founder of Tomo Networks, Inc. ("Tomo"), an internet-based mortgage and real estate company, and has served as Tomo’s Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of its Board of Directors since June 2020. Prior to founding and joining Tomo, from June 2018 to December 2019, Mr. Schwartz served as the President Media & Marketplaces of Zillow Group, Inc. ("Zillow"), an online real estate marketplace, prior to which he served as Zillow’s Chief Business Officer from August 2015 to June 2018, Chief Revenue Officer from September 2010 to August 2015 and Vice President of Sales from March 2007 to September 2010. Prior to joining Zillow, Mr. Schwartz was Vice President of Advertising Sales at CNNMoney.com, a financial media company, from July 2005 to March 2007. From August 2001 to July 2005, Mr. Schwartz served as National Accounts Director for the Automotive and Finance Properties of Yahoo!, Inc., an online search company. Mr. Schwartz held various positions at DoubleClick, Inc., an online advertising company, from 1998 to 2000, including Director of Business Development. Mr. Schwartz holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Government from Hamilton College.

 

We believe Mr. Schwartz is qualified to serve as a member of our Board of Directors because of his extensive experience as an executive in the online marketplace industry and as an executive officer at a public company.

 

Jason Trevisan

Director Since: January 2021

Age: 48

Key Skills and Experience

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Financial Reporting; Accounting; Taxation

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

 

Mr. Trevisan has served as our Chief Executive Officer and a member of our Board of Directors since January 2021 and is also serving as our interim Principal Financial Officer. Prior to such appointments, he served as our Chief Financial Officer from September 2015, as our Treasurer from July 2016 and as our President, International from January 2020. Prior to joining CarGurus, Mr. Trevisan was a General Partner with Polaris Partners ("Polaris"), a venture capital firm, from September 2003 to August 2015. While at Polaris, Mr. Trevisan led investments in and served as a director of numerous consumer internet and software companies including LegalZoom, PartsSource, Shoedazzle, and The Roberts Group. Prior to joining Polaris, from September 1999 to June 2001, Mr. Trevisan held management roles in analytics and client services at aQuantive, a digital marketing service and technology company, which was acquired by Microsoft Corporation in 2007. Earlier in his career, from July 1996 to August 1999, he served as a consultant with Bain & Company, a management consulting company. Mr. Trevisan received a Master of Business Administration degree from the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Duke University.

We believe Mr. Trevisan is qualified to serve as a member of our Board of Directors because of his extensive experience in the online marketplace industry and his deep understanding of our business as it has evolved over time.

 

11


Class II Directors

(term expiring 2025)

Steven Conine

Director Since: June 2018

Age: 50

 

Committees

Audit

Compensation

 

Other Public Company Boards

Wayfair Inc. (NYSE: W)

Key Skills and Experience

Independent

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

 

Mr. Conine has served as a member of our Board of Directors since June 2018. Mr. Conine is the co-founder of Wayfair Inc. ("Wayfair") and has served as a director of Wayfair since 2002. He previously served as Wayfair’s Chief Technology Officer from 2002 until 2015. Prior to founding Wayfair, Mr. Conine served as Chief Technology Officer for Simplify Mobile Corporation, an enterprise software company he co-founded in 2001, Chief Operating Officer for the London office of iXL Enterprises, Inc. from 1999 to 2000, and Chief Technology Officer of Spinners Incorporated, an IT consulting company he co-founded, from 1995 to 1998. Mr. Conine received a Bachelor of Science degree from Cornell University.

 

We believe Mr. Conine is qualified to serve as a member of our Board of Directors because of his extensive experience as a co-founder, director and executive in technology and internet marketplaces, as well as serving as an executive and member of the board of directors at a public company.

 

Stephen Kaufer

Director Since: June 2007

Age: 60

Committees

Compensation

Other Public Company Boards

TripAdvisor, Inc.

 

Key Skills and Experience

Independent

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

 

Mr. Kaufer has served as a member of our Board of Directors since June 2007. He co-founded TripAdvisor, Inc. ("TripAdvisor"), an online marketplace for travel-related content, in February 2000 and has been the President and Chief Executive Officer of TripAdvisor since that time. Mr. Kaufer has been a director of TripAdvisor since the completion of its spin-off from Expedia, Inc. in December 2011. Prior to co-founding TripAdvisor, Mr. Kaufer served as President of CDS, Inc. ("CDS"), an independent software vendor specializing in programming and testing tools. Prior to joining CDS, Mr. Kaufer co-founded CenterLine Software in 1985 and served as its Vice President of Engineering until 1998. Mr. Kaufer has served on the boards of several privately held companies, including LiveData, Inc. and GlassDoor, Inc., and currently serves as a member of the board of directors at the Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation. Mr. Kaufer holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Harvard University.

We believe Mr. Kaufer is qualified to serve as a member of our Board of Directors because of his extensive experience as an executive in the online marketplace industry. Mr. Kaufer also possesses strategic and governance skills gained through his service as an executive and member of the board of directors of a public company and with several private companies.

 

 

Class III Director to be elected at the 2023 Annual Meeting

(term expiring 2023)

Langley Steinert

Director Since: March 2006

Chairman Since: September 2017

Executive Chairman Since: January 2021

Age: 59

Key Skills and Experience

Additional Board of Directors Experience

Executive Leadership

Online Marketplace Industry

Innovation & Technology

12


 

Strategic Planning

Corporate Governance

Internet & Media

Finance & Investment Management

Oversight of Data Privacy and Cybersecurity

Human Capital Management

 

Langley Steinert is our founder and has served as our Executive Chairman since January 2021 and as a member of our Board of Directors since our founding. Mr. Steinert has served as our Chairman since September 2017, and served as our Chief Executive Officer from our founding to January 2021 and as our President from June 2015 to February 2019. Mr. Steinert is also the co-founder of ApartmentAdvisor, Inc., an apartment rental marketplace, and has served as Chairman of its board of directors since October 2020. Mr. Steinert also serves as a board member at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. From February 2000 through February 2006, Mr. Steinert was Chairman and co-founder of TripAdvisor, an online marketplace for travel-related content. Mr. Steinert holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Georgetown University.

We believe Mr. Steinert is qualified to serve as a member of our Board of Directors because of his extensive experience in the online marketplace industry. As our founder and Executive Chairman, we also value his deep understanding of our business as it has evolved over time.

 

There are no family relationships among any of our directors or executive officers.

Corporate Governance Matters

Our Board of Directors believes that good corporate governance is important to ensure that our company is managed for the long-term benefit of our stockholders. This section describes key corporate governance guidelines and practices that we have adopted. Complete copies of our Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Conduct are available on the Investor Relations section of our website, https://investors.cargurus.com, at "Governance." Alternatively, you can request a copy of any of these documents by writing us at: CarGurus, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, 2 Canal Park, 4th Floor, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141 USA.

Code of Conduct

Our Board of Directors has adopted a Code of Conduct which applies to all employees, officers and directors of CarGurus, Inc., its subsidiaries and its affiliates, including our Executive Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and other executive and senior financial officers. The Code of Conduct is available on our website at https://investors.cargurus.com at "Governance." Amendments to the Code of Conduct, and any waivers of its requirements, will be disclosed on our website.

Corporate Governance Guidelines

Our Board of Directors has Corporate Governance Guidelines to assist it in the exercise of its duties and responsibilities and to serve the best interests of our company and our stockholders. These principles, which set forth a framework for the conduct of our Board of Directors’ business, provide that:

the primary responsibility of the members of our Board of Directors is to oversee, counsel and direct our management in the interest and for the benefit of our stockholders;
unless otherwise permitted by the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq Stock Market ("Nasdaq"), a majority of the members of our Board of Directors must be independent directors;
the non-management directors meet at least semi-annually in executive session;
directors have full and free access to our management;
our Board of Directors has the authority to retain outside counsel, experts and other advisors as it determines appropriate;
new directors receive access to information and meetings with management in order to familiarize new directors with our business, operations, risk management and accounting issues, finances, and governance practices (including our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) and all directors are encouraged to attend director education programs; and
at least annually, our Board of Directors and its committees conduct self-evaluations to assess their performance.

Our Corporate Governance Guidelines are available on our website at https://investors.cargurus.com at "Governance.” Amendments to these Guidelines will be disclosed on our website.

13


Board of Directors Determination of Independence and Status as a "Controlled Company"

Our Board of Directors has undertaken a review of the independence of each director. Based on information provided by each director concerning the director’s background, employment and affiliations, our Board of Directors determined that each of Ms. Hickok and Messrs. Conine, Kaufer and Schwartz does not have a relationship that would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director and that each of these directors is "independent" as that term is defined under applicable Nasdaq listing requirements and rules. In making these determinations, our Board of Directors considered the current and prior relationships that each such director has with our company and all other facts and circumstances our Board of Directors deemed relevant in determining their independence, including each director’s direct and beneficial ownership of our capital stock and the transactions involving them described in the section of this Proxy Statement titled "Related Person Transactions."

Because Mr. Steinert controls a majority of our outstanding combined voting power, we are a "controlled company" under the corporate governance rules for Nasdaq-listed companies. Under these rules, a company is a controlled company if more than 50% of the combined voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company. A controlled company may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements otherwise applicable to Nasdaq-listed companies, including the requirements that:

a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors;
the compensation committee be composed entirely of directors meeting Nasdaq independence standards applicable to compensation committee members with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;
the compensation committee consider certain independence factors when engaging compensation consultants; and
director nominees either be selected, or recommended for selection by the board of directors, either by "independent directors," as defined under Nasdaq rules, constituting a majority of the independent directors of the board of directors in a vote in which only independent directors participate, or by a nominating committee comprised solely of independent directors.

We have availed, and intend to continue to avail, ourselves of certain of these exemptions and, for so long as we qualify as a controlled company, we will maintain the option to utilize from time to time some or all of these exemptions. For example, our Compensation Committee currently does not consist entirely of independent directors, we do not have a nominating committee, and our director nominees are not selected (or recommended for selection by our Board of Directors) in a vote in which only independent directors participate.

Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. Primarily by virtue of his holdings in shares of our Class B common stock, Mr. Steinert is able to exercise voting rights with respect to a majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. Transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting into Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning or charitable purposes. The conversion of Class B common stock into Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares. In particular, if Mr. Steinert retains a significant portion of his holdings of Class B common stock for an extended period of time, he could, in the future, continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock.

Director Nomination Process

As a controlled company, we do not use solely independent directors or a committee comprised solely of independent directors to evaluate director candidates and select or recommend director nominees for selection by our Board of Directors. Our entire Board of Directors is responsible for nominating candidates for election to the Board at our annual meeting of the stockholders. The process followed by our Board of Directors to identify and evaluate director candidates may include requests to members of our Board of Directors and others for recommendations; recommendations offered by our Chief Executive Officer, stockholders or any outside advisors retained by the Board of Directors, meetings from time to time to evaluate biographical information and background material relating to potential candidates; and interviews of selected candidates by members of our Board of Directors.

Criteria and Diversity

In considering whether to recommend any particular candidate for inclusion in the slate of recommended director nominees for our Board of Directors, our Board of Directors applies certain criteria as set forth in our Corporate Governance Guidelines. These criteria include the candidate’s business experience and skills, independence, character, wisdom, judgment, integrity, ability to make independent analytical inquiries, understanding of our business environment, the ability to commit sufficient time and attention to board activities, and the absence of potential conflicts with our interests. Our Board of Directors does not assign specific weights to particular criteria and no particular criterion is a prerequisite for any prospective nominee. In evaluating any director candidate recommended by stockholders, our Board of Directors will apply the same criteria and adhere to the same policies and procedures applicable to the evaluation of candidates proposed by members of our Board of Directors or management.

14


Our Board of Directors recognizes its responsibility to ensure that nominees for our Board of Directors possess appropriate qualifications and reflect a reasonable diversity of skills, abilities, industry knowledge, personal and professional experience and personal characteristics. We believe that the backgrounds and qualifications of our directors, considered as a group, should provide a composite mix of experience, knowledge and abilities that will allow our Board of Directors to promote our strategic objectives and to fulfill its responsibilities to our stockholders.

While we do not have a formal diversity policy, our Corporate Governance Guidelines sets forth our Board of Directors’ commitment to diversity. Specifically, our Board of Directors believes that diversity, including differences in backgrounds, qualifications, and personal characteristics, is important to the effectiveness of its oversight of the Company and that its membership should reflect a diversity of personal characteristics. Our Board of Directors is committed to this policy of inclusiveness and will therefore continue to take reasonable steps to ensure that women and candidates from traditionally unrepresented minorities are considered for the pool of candidates from which our director nominees are chosen and will continue to endeavor to include candidates from non-traditional venues. Consistent with this philosophy, since joining our Board of Directors in August 2018, Ms. Hickok has served in a leadership role as Chair of our Audit Committee.

The director biographies on pages 10-13 indicate each director’s experience, qualifications, attributes and skills that led our Board of Directors to conclude that each director should continue to serve as a member of our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors believes that each director has had substantial achievement in such director’s professional and personal pursuits and possesses the background, talents and experience that our Board of Directors desires and that will contribute to the best interests of our company and to long-term stockholder value.

15


Board Diversity Matrix

The tables below provide certain highlights of the composition of our Board of Directors members and nominees as of April 1, 2023 and April 1, 2022, respectively. Each of the categories listed in the tables below has the meaning as it is used in Nasdaq Rule 5605(f).

 

Board Diversity Matrix (As of April 1, 2023)

Total Number of Directors

7

Female

Male

Non-Binary

Did Not Disclose Gender

Part I: Gender Identity

Directors

1

4

0

2

Part II: Demographic Background

African American or Black

0

0

0

0

Alaskan Native or Native American

0

0

0

0

Asian

0

0

0

0

Hispanic or Latinx

0

0

0

0

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

0

0

0

0

White

1

4

0

0

Two or More Races or Ethnicities

0

0

0

0

LGBTQ+

0

Did Not Disclose Demographic Background

2

 

Board Diversity Matrix (As of April 1, 2022)

Total Number of Directors

8

Female

Male

Non-Binary

Did Not Disclose Gender

Part I: Gender Identity

Directors

2

4

0

2

Part II: Demographic Background

African American or Black

0

0

0

0

Alaskan Native or Native American

0

0

0

0

Asian

1

0

0

0

Hispanic or Latinx

0

0

0

0

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

0

0

0

0

White

1

4

0

0

Two or More Races or Ethnicities

0

0

0

0

LGBTQ+

0

Did Not Disclose Demographic Background

2

Board of Directors Meetings and Attendance

Our Board of Directors met six times during 2022. During 2022, six of our eight directors serving at such time attended at least 90% of the aggregate number of the meetings of our Board of Directors and the committees on which they served, for the periods during which they served, and each of our directors serving at such time attended at least 75% of the aggregate number of the meetings of our Board of Directors and the committees on which they served, for the periods during which they served.

Although we do not have a formal policy regarding director attendance at the annual meeting of stockholders, our Corporate Governance Guidelines provide that our directors are invited and encouraged to attend our annual meeting of stockholders. Seven of the eight members of our Board of Directors serving at such time attended our 2022 annual meeting of stockholders.

Board of Directors Leadership Structure

Mr. Steinert, our Executive Chairman, is also the Chairman of our Board of Directors. Mr. Steinert has authority, among other things, to call and preside over meetings of our Board of Directors and set meeting agendas. As a result of Mr. Steinert’s extensive history with and knowledge of CarGurus, he is able to provide valuable insight and help ensure that our Board of Directors and management act with a common purpose. Our Board of Directors has not appointed a lead independent director. As a result, if Mr. Steinert is not present at a meeting of our Board of Directors, our Board of Directors would appoint one independent director to chair such meeting. Effective as of Mr. Steinert’s resignation as our Chief Executive Officer and Mr. Trevisan’s appointment as such in

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January 2021, the roles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer are no longer combined. We have not established a policy as to whether or not the roles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer should be separate or combined.

We have a Chair for each committee of our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors delegates substantial responsibilities to the committees, which regularly report their activities and actions back to our Board of Directors. We believe our board and committee leadership structure provides an appropriate allocation of roles and responsibilities for our company at this time because it strikes an effective balance of the participation of management and independent leadership in the proceedings of our Board of Directors.

Executive Sessions

Under our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our non-management directors are required to meet in executive session at least semi-annually to discuss, among other matters, the performance of each of the Executive Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The director who presides at these meetings is a non-management director selected by a majority of the non-management directors. In general, these executive sessions are held on the same date as regularly scheduled meetings of our Board of Directors.

Board of Directors Committees

Our Board of Directors has established an Audit Committee and a Compensation Committee, each of which operates pursuant to a charter adopted by our Board of Directors. The composition and functioning of our committees comply with all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and rules and regulations of Nasdaq and the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), including those related to our status as a "controlled company."

The current composition of the committees of our Board of Directors is set forth below. Members serve on these committees until their resignation, removal or as otherwise determined by our Board of Directors.

Audit Committee

Compensation Committee

Lori Hickok – Chair(1)

Ian Smith – Chair(3)

Steven Conine(2)

Steven Conine

Greg Schwartz(2)

Stephen Kaufer

(1)
Ms. Hickok meets the requirements for independence of audit committee members under applicable Nasdaq and SEC rules and regulations and meets Nasdaq financial literacy requirements. In addition, our Board of Directors has determined that Ms. Hickok is an audit committee financial expert within the meaning of Item 407(d) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act").
(2)
Mr. Conine and Mr. Schwartz meet the requirements for independence of audit committee members under applicable Nasdaq and SEC rules and regulations and meet Nasdaq financial literacy requirements.
(3)
Mr. Smith is serving as the chair of our Compensation Committee until May 3, 2023. Beginning on May 3, 2023, the Board expects to appoint Mr. Kaufer as chair of our Compensation Committee.

The responsibilities of each of the committees of our Board of Directors is further detailed below.

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Audit Committee

The responsibilities of the Audit Committee include, among other things:

selecting and hiring the independent registered public accounting firm to audit our financial statements and internal control over financial reporting;
confirming the independence and overseeing the performance of the independent registered public accounting firm;
approving the scope, fees, and terms of all audit and permissible non-audit engagements;
reviewing financial statements and discussing with management and the independent registered public accounting firm our audited annual and unaudited quarterly financial statements, the results of the independent audit and the quarterly reviews, and any reports and certifications regarding internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls;
preparing the Audit Committee report that the SEC requires to be included in our annual proxy statement;
reviewing reports and communications from the independent registered public accounting firm;
reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of our internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures;
reviewing our policies on risk assessment and risk management;
reviewing related person transactions;
overseeing procedures for the receipt, retention, and treatment of complaints regarding accounting, internal account controls or auditing matters and the confidential submission by our employees of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters; and
reviewing annually the Audit Committee Charter and the Audit Committee’s performance.

The Audit Committee operates under a written Charter that satisfies applicable Nasdaq standards and is available on our website at https://investors.cargurus.com at "Governance." The Audit Committee met seven times during 2022.

Compensation Committee

The purpose of the Compensation Committee is, to the extent such tasks are not performed by our full Board of Directors, to oversee our compensation philosophy, policies, plans, and benefit programs and to discharge the responsibilities of our Board of Directors relating to the compensation of our officers.

Except to the extent that our full Board of Directors undertakes any responsibility directly, the responsibilities of the Compensation Committee include, among other things:

overseeing our compensation philosophy, policies, plans, and benefit programs;
reviewing and approving, or making recommendations to our Board of Directors regarding, the compensation of our executive officers;
reviewing and approving, and, where appropriate, recommending to our Board of Directors for approval, any material employment agreements, severance arrangements and change in control agreements and provisions for our Chief Executive Officer and other executive officers when and if appropriate, as well as any special supplemental benefits;
reviewing annually the Compensation Committee Charter and the Compensation Committee’s performance;
preparing the annual report of the Compensation Committee for inclusion in our proxy statement or annual report on Form 10-K, as applicable; and
administering our equity compensation plans.

The Compensation Committee may delegate any of its responsibilities to subcommittees as it deems necessary or appropriate in its sole discretion.

Because we are a controlled company under Nasdaq rules, the Compensation Committee is not required to be fully independent. As the composition of our Board of Directors changes, we may however have a Compensation Committee comprised entirely of independent directors. In addition, if such rules change in the future or we no longer meet the definition of a controlled company under current rules, we will adjust the composition of the Compensation Committee in order to comply with such rules.

The Compensation Committee operates under a written charter that satisfies applicable Nasdaq standards and which is available on our website at https://investors.cargurus.com at "Governance." The Compensation Committee met four times during 2022.

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Board of Directors Role in Risk Oversight

Our Board of Directors oversees the management of risks inherent in the operation of our business and the implementation of our business strategies. Our Board of Directors performs this oversight role by using several different levels of review. In connection with its review of the operations and corporate functions of our company, our Board of Directors addresses the principal risks associated with those operations and corporate functions. In addition, our Board of Directors reviews the risks associated with our business strategies periodically throughout the year as part of its consideration of undertaking any such business strategies. Our Board of Directors has also implemented – and is responsible for overseeing – an executive compensation recovery, or "clawback," policy (the "Clawback Policy") that allows the Company to recoup certain incentive-based cash compensation from its officers pursuant to such policy.

Our Board of Directors administers its risk oversight responsibilities by delegating certain business and governance activities to the appropriate committees for more detailed consideration and evaluation. In performing this oversight function, each committee has full access to management, as well as the ability to engage advisors or other experts it deems necessary in the performance of its duties. The committee regularly report their risk oversight activities to our Board of Directors.

The Audit Committee has the responsibility to consider and discuss our major financial risk exposures and the steps our management has taken to monitor and control these exposures, including guidelines and policies to govern the process by which risk assessment and management are undertaken. The Audit Committee also monitors our compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, in addition to oversight of the performance of our internal audit function. As part of this function, the Audit Committee oversees cybersecurity matters and regularly meets with members of management responsible for data privacy, technology and information security risks to discuss these risks, risk management activities, incident response plans, best practices, the effectiveness of our security measures and other related matters.

The Compensation Committee assesses and monitors the extent to which our incentive compensation policies and programs for employees may encourage excessive risk-taking and the relationship between risk management policies and practices and compensation, and evaluates compensation policies and practices that could mitigate any such risk.

Our management is responsible for the day-to-day identification, evaluation, management, and mitigation of the Company’s risk exposures. The Company manages these enterprise risks through a variety of policies, programs, committees, and internal controls designed to protect the Company’s assets, operations, and reputation, while ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Our management provides a quarterly update to the Audit Committee on compliance and risk management developments, policies and procedures, and auditing covering the risk topics of financial accounting, technology and security, legal and corporate governance and people and talent.

People and Talent

Our investment in our greatest asset – our people – is integral to our core values, evidenced by our inclusion of employee engagement, retention targets and cultural efforts as components of our 2022 strategic and organizational initiatives. Our Board of Directors oversees our people and talent efforts and views building our culture – from employee development and retention to diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging initiatives – as key to driving long-term value for our business and helping to mitigate risks.

Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging and Equal Employment Policy

We are an equal opportunity employer and strive to build and nurture a culture where inclusiveness is a reflex, not an initiative. With support from our Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging Advisory Council, we seek to foster diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging ("DEIB"), and to build a workplace where everyone can thrive. We believe that our commitment to these efforts helps us attract and retain the best talent, enables employees to realize their full potential and drives high performance through innovation and collaboration. In 2022, based on data from employees who chose to self-identify (87.3%), on a year-over-year basis we increased representation among women and non-binary employees (35.1% to 37.4%) and increased representation among underrepresented racial minorities (30.1% to 34.4%) within our U.S. workforce. We also saw year-over-year increases in the U.S. among women and non-binary employees in technical (25.9% to 26.2%) and management-level roles (34.2% to 38.6%), as well as among underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in technical roles (45.7% to 49.4%) and management-level roles (19.4% to 21.6%).

While we expect to make further progress on these important initiatives, during 2022 we made significant strides toward fostering a culture that prioritizes diversity, promotes equity and inclusivity, and ensures belonging by:

Incorporating targeted improvements in representation and belonging for underrepresented populations at the Company in the U.S. as part of our annual strategic and organizational initiatives, one of the components of our annual cash incentive award program, which formed a part of our executive compensation design for 2022 (see "Compensation Discussion and Analysis" below for more information);
Continuing to partner with our internal Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging Advisory Council, a cross-functional leadership team focused on guiding and supporting our efforts around our short and long-term Diversity, Equity,

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Inclusion, and Belonging goals through the five pillars of DEIB at CarGurus: career equity, education and learning, representation, community impact, and business impact;
Continuing to nurture and leverage our six thriving Employee Resource Groups (each, an "ERG") (which in 2022 grew from 500 to 889 members,) as thought leaders and community advocates, and planning and hosting over 40 events;
Implementing a bonus plan for our Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging Advisory Council members and ERG Leaders, positioning us as a leader in this space;
Launching Elevate, our internal mentoring program. In its first year, we had 97 mentors, 102 mentees, and held 612 1:1 mentor sessions;
Providing a variety of learning opportunities to fuel engagement, inclusion and belonging, including specialized DEIB trainings and workshops, ongoing speaker series and community conversations; and
Launching CarGurus Career Development Model, a comprehensive, inclusive program that empowers our employees with the tools, resources, and information to take charge of their career progression and professional development.

Building on the progress we made in 2022 on DEIB, we believe we entered 2023 with a strong foundation in place for goal setting, feedback and accountability, and both top-down and bottom-up strategies as we seek to continue to make meaningful progress towards these shared objectives.

Employee Engagement

Each year, we conduct an employee engagement survey to help our management team gain insight into and gauge employees’ feelings, attitudes, and behaviors around working at CarGurus. Our latest survey, completed in September 2022, had a participation rate of approximately 90% of our eligible employees worldwide. The survey results indicated that we excelled in areas like manager empathy and support, as well as key indicators of belonging - including fairly considering each other’s ideas and feeling respected as a member of our community. Based on employee feedback, we also identified several company-wide opportunity areas to improve engagement and drive long-term success. Our culture and commitment to building a workplace where we can all thrive has been recognized externally with the following awards: Built In Boston’s "Best Places to Work" in 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023; Boston Business Journal’s "Best Places to Work" in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2021, and 2022; Boston Globe’s "Top Place to Work" in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018, and 2022; and multiple awards from Comparably including "Best Perks & Benefits" in 2021 and 2022, "Best Work-Life Balance" in 2021 and 2022, and "Best Company Culture" in 2022.

Training and Development

Our people and talent strategy is essential for our ability to continue to develop and market innovative products and customer solutions. We continually invest in our employees’ career growth and provide employees with a wide range of development opportunities, including mandatory quarterly compliance training courses as well as one-on-one, virtual, social and self-directed learning, mentoring, coaching, and external development. In 2022, nearly 100% of our employees participated in learning and development activities worldwide.

Charitable Giving

One of our core values is integrity, which we endeavor to achieve by acting responsibly and considering the impact of our actions on one other, our partners and the world around us. Our Charitable Giving program, established in 2018, highlights our commitment to this core value by supporting our local communities. This program allows our employees to submit nominations for grants to tax-exempt organizations, which are then reviewed by a committee of our employees and awarded to selected charities on a quarterly basis. During 2022, we awarded more than $195,000 in grants to over 30 charitable organizations.

Additionally, within the broader community in which we operate, dealerships are known for their charitable giving and community service. Our Dealer Sponsorship program, formally established in 2017, supports customer requests for us to make financial contributions to dealership charitable events. CarGurus has budgeted funds to support these initiatives and continue to grow our partnership with our loyal customers. During 2022, we awarded more than $204,000 to 44 different dealership causes.

Environmentally Conscious

We also believe that it is important to conduct business in an environmentally responsible manner. For example, the building that will house our future headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts will offer cutting edge systems for energy efficiency and sustainability, consistent with a LEED Gold certified building, will be easily accessible by public transportation and will have electric vehicle charging stations and indoor bike racks. For our employees in our offices, we encourage participation in a robust recycling program that includes recycling bins at every employee desk and conference room as well as next to all trash receptacles in our office kitchens. We also incentivize low-carbon-producing means of transportation via public transportation subsidies and by offering a
generous annual stipend for employees who bike or walk to work.

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In addition, we offer an Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") focused fund option through Calvert Investments (the "Calvert Fund") with our available lineup of funds under our Section 401(k) plan for our eligible U.S. employees. The Calvert Fund targets responsible investments in companies that provide positive leadership through business operations focused on materially improving societal outcomes, including those that will affect future generations.

We will continue to invest in our employees, culture and community, and we expect to consider and report on ESG factors as they evolve within the Company.

Communicating with our Board of Directors

Our Board of Directors gives appropriate attention to written communications that are submitted by stockholders and other interested parties and will respond if and as appropriate. Our Secretary is primarily responsible for monitoring communications to our Board of Directors, its committees and individual directors, from stockholders and other interested parties and for providing copies or summaries of such communications to members of our Board of Directors as they consider appropriate.

Communications are forwarded to all members of our Board of Directors if they relate to important substantive matters and include suggestions or comments that our Secretary considers to be important for the members of our Board of Directors to know. In general, communications relating to corporate governance and corporate strategy are more likely to be forwarded than communications relating to ordinary business affairs, personal grievances and duplicative communications.

Stockholders and other interested parties who wish to send communications on any topic to our Board of Directors should address such communications to: The Board of Directors, c/o Secretary, CarGurus, Inc., 2 Canal Park, 4th Floor, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141 USA.

Additionally, we have established a confidential process for reporting, investigating and resolving employee and third-party concerns related to accounting, auditing and similar matters under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Stockholders and other interested parties may confidentially provide information to our Audit Committee or to one or more of our individual directors by using the confidential and anonymous financial concern hotline that is operated by an independent, third-party service. Within the United States and Canada, the ethics hotline can be reached by telephone, toll-free, at 1-877-325-9953 or worldwide via the internet at https://www.whistleblowerservices.com/CARG/.

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Information About Our Executive Officers

Certain information regarding our executive officers who are not also directors, as of April 1, 2023, is set forth below.

Name

Age

Positions(s)

Jason Trevisan*

48

Chief Executive Officer and Director

Langley Steinert*

59

Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board of Directors

Thomas Caputo

49

Chief Product Officer

Andrea Eldridge

48

Chief People Officer

Matthew Quinn

51

Chief Technology Officer

Dafna Sarnoff

59

Chief Marketing Officer

Samuel Zales

59

Chief Operating Officer and President

Javier Zamora

52

General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

*See "Board of Directors and Management – Information Regarding Directors and Director Nominees” for biographical information.

Thomas Caputo. Thomas Caputo has served as our Chief Product Officer since February 2019. Mr. Caputo also served as our Senior Vice President of Product from January 2017 to February 2019. Prior to joining CarGurus, from July 2012 to January 2017, Mr. Caputo served as the Chief Product Officer at Fiksu Inc. ("Fiksu"), a mobile marketing company. Prior to Fiksu, from January 2011 to August 2012, Mr. Caputo was Vice President of Product Management at [x+1] Inc. ("[x+1]"), a digital marketing company, which was acquired by Rocket Fuel Inc. in August 2014. Prior to joining [x+1], from October 2007 to January 2011, Mr. Caputo served as Vice President at Advanced Technology Ventures ("ATV"), a venture capital firm. Prior to joining ATV, from August 2003 to October 2007, Mr. Caputo served as a Group Product Manager at Microsoft Corporation, a multinational software and technology company. Mr. Caputo holds a Master of Science degree from Stanford University, a Master of Business Administration degree from Stanford University Graduate School of Business and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Dartmouth College.

Andrea Eldridge. Andrea Eldridge has served as our Chief People Officer since February 2020. Prior to joining CarGurus, from October 2018 to November 2019, Ms. Eldridge served as Senior Vice President, Talent & Employee Experience for Cengage Learning, Inc. ("Cengage"), an educational content and technology company. Prior to joining Cengage, from February 2006 to February 2018, Ms. Eldridge held various positions in talent, marketing and general management at Ahold USA, a subsidiary of Ahold Delhaize, a global grocery retailing group. Ms. Eldridge holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Wellesley College.

Matthew Quinn. Matthew Quinn has served as our Chief Technology Officer since January 2022. Prior to joining CarGurus, from January 2020 to December 2021, Mr. Quinn was Vice President of Engineering at the small business referral network, Alignable, Inc. He has also led large development teams at technology companies such as Audible, Inc. ("Audible"), an Amazon.com, Inc. ("Amazon") company providing online audiobook and podcast services, where he served in roles from June 2015 to December 2019 including as Vice President of Software Development from May 2018 to December 2019, as well as Vistaprint ("Vistaprint"), a Cimpress plc company providing online marketing and printing services to small businesses, and Amazon, an e-commerce and cloud computing company. Mr. Quinn pioneered Vistaprint’s promotional products business, built and led their digital services engineering team, managed teams on Amazon’s Fire Phone launch, served as the site lead for Audible’s Boston office and led teams that launched Audible on Alexa, FireTV and Kindle. Mr. Quinn holds a Master of Science degree in Management from Emmanuel College and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Mathematics and Computer Science from the College of the Holy Cross.

Dafna Sarnoff. Dafna Sarnoff has served as our Chief Marketing Officer since December 2021. Prior to joining CarGurus, Ms. Sarnoff led marketing for several technology and growth companies, including Aura Sub, LLC, a digital security innovator, from September 2020 to November 2021; Intersection Parent, Inc., an experience-driven media and technology company from August 2016 to September 2020; and Yodle, Inc., a digital marketing software-as-a-service business that was acquired by Web.Com Group, Inc. in 2016, from November 2012 to August 2016. Ms. Sarnoff also held various leadership roles over ten years at American Express Company, in both consumer and B2B marketing, after starting her career at Bain & Company, Inc., a management consulting company. Ms. Sarnoff holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Harvard Business School and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Mathematics from Dartmouth College.

Samuel Zales. Samuel Zales has served as our Chief Operating Officer since September 2017 and as our President since February 2019. Mr. Zales also served as our Chief Revenue Officer from December 2015 to September 2017 and as our President of Dealer Operations and International from November 2014 to December 2015. Prior to joining CarGurus, from January 2014 to October 2014, Mr. Zales was Executive Vice President of Zeta Interactive, a marketing software company that acquired ClickSquared, Inc. ("ClickSquared") in January 2014. From March 2013 to January 2014, Mr. Zales was Chief Executive Officer of ClickSquared, a marketing software company. Prior to ClickSquared, Mr. Zales was a consultant to multiple technology and software companies and served on the boards of four venture-backed companies. From October 2008 to November 2011, Mr. Zales was President of Zoom Information, Inc. ("ZoomInfo"), a software-as-a-service company, where he led day-to-day operations and oversaw the company’s

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growth strategy into the marketing services and sales intelligence arenas. Prior to ZoomInfo, from January 2007 to October 2008, Mr. Zales was Chief Executive Officer of BuyerZone.com LLC ("BuyerZone"), an online marketplace for business purchasing and a division of Reed Business Information, a business unit of Reed Elsevier PLC, which acquired BuyerZone in January 2007. From November 1999 to January 2007, Mr. Zales was President and Chief Executive Officer of BuyerZone, which he led to its acquisition by Reed Business Information. Mr. Zales holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Dartmouth College.

Javier Zamora. Javier Zamora has served as our General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since August 2022. Prior to joining CarGurus, Mr. Zamora was VP, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary of Converse, Inc., a footwear and apparel company, from February 2021 to July 2022. From March 2008 to January 2021, he served as Assistant General Counsel at Nike, Inc. ("Nike"), an iconic global footwear and apparel company. Prior to Nike, Mr. Zamora practiced corporate and securities law at a national law firm based in Chicago and was an officer in the military who served a tour of duty in Iraq. Mr. Zamora holds a Juris Doctor degree from DePaul University and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the University of California, Los Angeles.

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AUDIT COMMITTEE REPORT

The report of the Audit Committee is not considered to be "soliciting material," is not deemed "filed" with the SEC, and is not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of the Company under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").

The Audit Committee has reviewed (i) the audited consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, (ii) management’s report on its assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, and (iii) the report from Ernst & Young, the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm, on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022. The Audit Committee has met with representatives of Ernst & Young, with and without management present, to discuss the results of their examinations; their evaluations of the Company’s internal control, including internal control over financial reporting; and the overall quality of the Company’s financial reporting.

The Company’s management is responsible for the Company’s financial reporting process, including its system of internal controls, and for the preparation of its consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The independent registered public accounting firm audits the annual consolidated financial statements prepared by management in accordance with standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the "PCAOB"), expresses an opinion as to such financial statements and issues a report on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Audit Committee is responsible for providing independent, objective oversight of the Company’s accounting functions and internal controls.

The Audit Committee also received from, and discussed with, Ernst & Young the written disclosures and other communications that the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm is required to provide to the Audit Committee, including the matters required to be discussed by the Statement on Auditing Standards No. 1301, as amended (Communication with Audit Committees), as adopted by the PCAOB, in Rule 3200T.

Ernst & Young also provided the Audit Committee with the written disclosures and the letter required by Rule 3526 of the PCAOB requiring independent registered public accounting firms annually to disclose in writing all relationships that in their professional opinion may reasonably be thought to bear on independence, to confirm their perceived independence and to engage in a discussion of independence. The Audit Committee has reviewed this disclosure and has discussed with Ernst & Young their independence from the Company.

Based on these discussions and the Company’s review of the representations and information provided by management and the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm, the Audit Committee recommended to the Board of Directors that the audited consolidated financial statements be included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 for filing with the SEC.

By the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of CarGurus, Inc.

Lori Hickok (Chair)

Steven Conine

Greg Schwartz

 

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Compensation Discussion and Analysis

This Compensation Discussion and Analysis discusses the principles underlying our executive compensation policies and decisions and the most important factors relevant to an analysis of these policies and decisions. In addition, we explain how and why the Compensation Committee arrived at the specific compensation policies and decisions involving our executive officers during the year ended December 31, 2022. During 2022, these individuals were:

Jason Trevisan, our Chief Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer(1);
Scot Fredo, our former Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Secretary(2);
Langley Steinert, our founder, Executive Chairman and Chairman of our Board of Directors
Matthew Quinn, our Chief Technology Officer; and
Andrea Eldridge, our Chief People Officer;
(1)
Following Mr. Fredo's resignation from the Company on October 3, 2022, Mr. Trevisan has been acting as the Company's Principal Financial Officer. Mr. Trevisan has also been acting as the Company's Principal Accounting Officer since December 2, 2022.
(2)
Mr. Fredo's employment with the Company ended on October 3, 2022.
(3)
Mr. Quinn's employment with the Company began effective as of January 3, 2022.

We refer to these executive officers collectively in this Compensation Discussion and Analysis and the accompanying compensation tables as our "Named Executive Officers."

Executive Summary

CarGurus is a multinational, online automotive platform for buying and selling vehicles that is building upon its industry-leading listings marketplace with both digital retail solutions and the CarOffer online wholesale platform. The CarGurus marketplace gives consumers the confidence to purchase or sell a vehicle either online or in-person, and it gives dealerships the power to accurately price, effectively market, instantly acquire and quickly sell vehicles, all with a nationwide reach. CarGurus uses proprietary technology, search algorithms and data analytics to bring trust, transparency and competitive pricing to the automotive shopping experience. In addition to the United States, we operate online marketplaces under the CarGurus brand in Canada and the United Kingdom. In the United States and United Kingdom, we also operate the Autolist and PistonHeads online marketplaces, respectively, as independent brands.

2022 Executive Compensation Highlights

Consistent with our performance and compensation objectives, the Compensation Committee took the following actions relating to the compensation of our Named Executive Officers for 2022:

Base Salary – Approved increases in base salary from 3% to 22%, which aligned with our practice of annual merit base salary increases, and in the case of the 22% increase, aligned with our practice of conducting period market adjustments as necessary to ensure base salaries are aligned with our peer group. Maintained Mr. Steinert's annual base salary of $10,000.
Annual Cash Incentive Awards – Made annual cash incentive award payments, which represented approximately 84.4% on average of the target annual cash incentive award opportunity for the full year for our Named Executive Officers, based on our actual achievement against pre-established performance objectives, except for Mr. Steinert who did not receive an annual cash incentive award for 2022.
Equity Awards – Granted restricted stock unit ("RSU") awards that may be settled in shares of our Class A common stock, subject to certain time vesting requirements.

2022 Executive Compensation Policies and Practices

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We endeavor to maintain sound governance standards consistent with our executive compensation policies and practices. The Compensation Committee evaluates our executive compensation program on a regular basis to ensure consistency with our short-term and long-term goals given the dynamic nature of our business and the market in which we compete for executive talent. The following policies and practices were in effect during 2022:

What We Do:

Annual Executive Compensation Review. The Compensation Committee annually reviews and approves our compensation strategy, including, as applicable, a review of our compensation peer group used for comparative purposes.
Compensation Risk Oversight. The Compensation Committee reviews the extent to which our incentive compensation policies and programs may encourage excessive risk-taking. At least annually, the Compensation Committee also reviews the relationship between our risk management policies and practices and compensation, and evaluates alternative compensation policies and practices that could mitigate any such risk.
Utilize Independent Compensation Advisor. Pursuant to its charter, the Compensation Committee has authority to engage outside compensation consultants or other advisors to assist the committee in carrying out its duties. With respect to 2022 executive compensation, the Compensation Committee engaged Compensia, Inc. ("Compensia"), a national compensation consulting firm, as its compensation consultant. Except as described below under "Compensation-Setting ProcessRole of Compensation Consultant," Compensia performed no consulting or other services for us in 2022. Based on its review, the Compensation Committee has determined that Compensia is independent and does not have other relationships with us that would impair its independence.
Compensation At Risk. Our executive compensation program is designed so that a significant portion of the cash incentive compensation of our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, is "at risk" based on corporate performance, and all of their RSU awards that were made or otherwise outstanding during 2022 were "at risk" based on continued employment through applicable vesting dates.
Equity-Based Compensation. A significant portion of the total compensation we pay to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, is in the form of equity-based compensation, which we believe aligns the interests of our executive officers and stockholders. Approximately 86% of compensation for our Named Executive Officers other than Jason Trevisan for 2022 was equity-based.
"Double Trigger" Change of Control Provisions in Executive Equity Awards. Our current forms of time-based RSU and non-qualified stock option ("NQSO") award agreements with our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, provide for acceleration of unvested RSUs or NQSOs, as applicable, under such award solely in the event of a qualifying termination of employment within 12 months following a Change of Control (as defined in the Company’s Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan (the "2017 Plan")). None of our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, is currently entitled to "single trigger" acceleration of vesting of any currently outstanding equity awards.
Health or Welfare Benefits. Our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, participate in broad-based Company-sponsored health and welfare benefits programs on the same basis as our other full-time, salaried employees.
Compensation Clawback Policy. We maintain the Clawback Policy, which provides for the recoupment of certain incentive compensation from covered individuals, including executive officers, in connection with certain triggering events. See "Compensation Clawback Policy" below for more information.

What We Don’t Do:

No Retirement Plans Other than Standard Plans Offered to Employees. We do not currently offer, nor do we have plans to provide, pension arrangements, retirement plans or nonqualified deferred compensation plans or arrangements to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers.
Limited Perquisites. Except as described below in "Perquisites and Other Personal Benefits," we do not provide significant perquisites or other personal benefits to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, except as generally made available to our other full-time employees.
No Change-of-Control-Related Tax Gross-Ups. We do not provide any tax gross-ups that may arise due to the application of Sections 280G and 4999 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the "Code") to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers.
No Cash Severance Payments for Executives Arising Solely as a Result of a Change of Control. Our current agreements with our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, do not provide for any cash payments or other benefits that arise solely as a result of a change of control of the Company.

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Hedging and Pledging Prohibitions. Our Insider Trading Policy prohibits our non-employee directors, executive officers, employees, and certain other persons as may be designated by the administrator of such policy from (i) entering into hedging or monetization transactions or similar arrangements with respect to our securities and (ii) holding our securities in a margin account or pledging our securities as collateral for a loan, in each instance without prior approval from the policy administrator.

Stockholder Advisory Vote on Named Executive Officer Compensation

At the Annual Meeting, we will be conducting a non-binding stockholder advisory vote on the compensation of our Named Executive Officers for 2022 (commonly known as a "Say-on-Pay" vote). This Say-on-Pay vote provides stockholders the opportunity to express their views on our Named Executive Officers’ compensation. This vote is not intended to advise on any specific element of our compensation programs, but rather on the overall compensation of our Named Executive Officers and the philosophy, policies and practices described in this Proxy Statement.

At our 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, our stockholders approved, on an advisory basis, a frequency of every year for casting advisory votes regarding our executive compensation. After considering the vote of stockholders on the matter, as well as our general compensation philosophy, we adopted an annual frequency for holding the Say-on-Pay vote. As a result, we held a Say-on-Pay vote at each of our 2020, 2021 and 2022 Annual Meetings of Stockholders. In 2020 and 2021, the Say-on-Pay vote received the approval of 97% of the votes cast for the proposal. In 2022, the Say-on-Pay vote received 80% of the votes cast for such proposal. Although these results were advisory and not binding on the Company, our Board of Directors or the Compensation Committee, we value the opinions of our stockholders and have and commit to continue take the results of the Say-on-Pay vote into account when making subsequent decisions regarding the compensation of our Named Executive Officers.

Compensation Philosophy and Objectives

We believe in providing a competitive total compensation package to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, through a combination of annual base salary, annual cash incentive award opportunities, equity awards and broad-based health and welfare benefit plans. Our executive compensation program is designed to achieve the following objectives:

attract, motivate and retain executive officers of outstanding ability and potential;
reward the achievement of key performance measures; and
ensure that executive compensation is meaningfully related to the creation of stockholder value.

We believe that our executive compensation program should generally include short-term and long-term elements, including cash and equity compensation, and should reward consistent performance that meets or exceeds expectations. We evaluate the compensation provided to our executive officers to ensure it remains competitive relative to compensation paid by companies of similar size and geographic location operating in our industry, taking into account our relative performance, our financial and strategic objectives, and the performance of the individual executive officer.

Executive Compensation Design

The compensation arrangements for our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, consist of annual base salary, annual cash incentive award opportunities, long-term incentive compensation opportunities in the form of equity awards and certain broad-based employee health and welfare benefit plans. The key component of our executive compensation program continues to be equity compensation. We have generally emphasized the use of equity to provide incentives for our executive officers to focus on the growth of our overall enterprise value and, correspondingly, to create sustainable value for our stockholders.

Historically and during 2022, our principal equity incentive vehicle was in the form of time-based RSU awards that may be settled in shares of our Class A common stock as they are earned. We believe that time-based RSU awards that may be settled in shares of our Class A common stock offer our executive officers a valuable long-term incentive that aligns their interests with the long-term interests of our stockholders. In 2021, we expanded the form of equity awards granted to our executive officers to include performance-based RSU awards and NQSO awards. However, in February 2022, the Compensation Committee amended the vesting provisions of the performance-based RSU awards granted to our executive officers in 2021 and 2022 from performance-based to time-based. See "Modification of 2021 and 2022 Performance-Based Equity Grants" below for more information regarding the amended performance-based RSU awards. Going forward, as we deem appropriate, we expect to continue to offer time-based RSU awards; however, we may also introduce other forms of stock-based compensation awards into our executive compensation program to provide our executive officers with various types of equity incentives that further this objective.

We also offer cash compensation in the form of annual base salaries and annual cash incentive award opportunities. Typically, we have structured our annual cash incentive award opportunities to focus on the achievement of specific short-term financial and strategic objectives that will further our longer-term growth objectives.

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We have not adopted any formal policies or guidelines for allocating compensation between current and long-term compensation, between cash and non-cash compensation or among different forms of non-cash compensation. Instead, the Compensation Committee reviews each element of executive compensation separately and also takes into consideration the value of each executive officer’s target total direct compensation opportunity (the sum of annual base salary, annual cash incentive award opportunity and equity awards) as a whole, and its relative size in comparison to our other executive officers. The Compensation Committee also considers amounts realizable from prior compensation awarded to each executive officer, including equity that is nearly- or fully-vested, when setting each individual’s target total direct compensation opportunity for the fiscal year.

The Compensation Committee reviews our executive compensation program at least annually. As part of this review process, the Compensation Committee considers whether our overall compensation philosophy is aligned with the interests of our stockholders while considering the compensation levels needed to ensure that our executive compensation program remains reasonable and competitive. In addition, the Compensation Committee considers our ability to achieve our retention objectives and the potential cost of replacing executive officers. From time to time the Compensation Committee may determine that it is in the best interest of the Company and our stockholders to modify, amend or otherwise adjust previous compensation awards.

 

Modification of 2021 and 2022 Performance-Based Equity Grants

On February 8, 2022, the Compensation Committee amended the performance-based RSU awards granted to our executive officers in 2021 and 2022 to modify the vesting terms of such awards from performance-based to time-based ("2022 PSU Amendment") so that all outstanding RSUs held by our executive officers are aligned with our compensation philosophy and objectives. The RSUs subject to the 2022 PSU Amendment may be settled in shares of our Class A common stock and are subject to vesting over four years from the date of grant of the performance-based RSU. After a thorough review of our executive compensation program, the Compensation Committee believes that this updated program design reflects current market practices, more effectively links pay and performance by offering incentives to our executives that are not overly reactive to current market volatility, and serves as a compelling means of retaining our important talent in a competitive market, thus making it in the best long-term interests of our stockholders.

Compensation-Setting Process

Role of the Compensation Committee

The Compensation Committee is responsible for reviewing and approving the compensation of our officers, including our Named Executive Officers, subject to any approval of our Board of Directors that the Compensation Committee determines to be desirable or is required by applicable law or Nasdaq listing standards. Specifically, the Compensation Committee oversees our compensation and benefit plans and policies, administers our equity compensation plans and reviews and approves (or makes recommendations to our Board of Directors regarding) the compensation of our officers.

Role of our Chief Executive Officer

Our Chief Executive Officer evaluates at least annually the performance of each of our executive officers and makes recommendations to the Compensation Committee with respect to annual base salary adjustments, target annual cash incentive award opportunities, actual award payments, and equity awards for each such executive officer. While the Compensation Committee takes these recommendations into consideration in its deliberations, it exercises its own independent judgment in approving the executive compensation of our executive officers. Our Chief Executive Officer does not make recommendations regarding his own compensation, and he does not participate in any discussions regarding his own compensation.

Role of Compensation Consultant

The Compensation Committee has the authority under its Charter to engage the services of a compensation consultant to assist it in carrying out its responsibilities. In each of the past three years, the Compensation Committee formally retained Compensia to assist it in developing and overseeing the Company’s executive compensation program and non-employee director compensation program and practices and to provide market data. Pursuant to these engagements, Compensia reviewed our existing compensation peer group and recommended an updated set of companies in 2019, which the Compensation Committee considered in determining our compensation peer group. After considering updated analyses from Compensia, the Compensation Committee maintained this same compensation peer group for 2020 but modified the compensation peer group for 2021 and 2022. To assist the Compensation Committee with its consideration of 2022 executive compensation decisions, Compensia provided the Compensation Committee with compensation data and an updated market analysis for similarly situated executive officers at these peer companies. Similarly, to assist the Compensation Committee with its consideration of 2022 non-employee board or director compensation program, Compensia provided the Compensation Committee with compensation data and an updated market analysis for similarly situated board members at peer companies. Compensia also provided consulting services to the Company on an ad hoc basis regarding equity compensation matters and assisted with review of the "Compensation Discussion and Analysis" section of the Company’s 2022 Proxy Statement.

Compensia maintains a policy that is specifically designed to prevent any conflicts of interest. In addition, the Compensation Committee has assessed the independence of Compensia taking into account, among other things, the factors set forth in Exchange

28


Act Rule 10C-1 and Nasdaq listing standards, and concluded that no conflict of interest has arisen with respect to the work that Compensia performs for the Compensation Committee.

Competitive Positioning

The Compensation Committee established a compensation peer group consisting of publicly traded companies, which the Compensation Committee reviews and modifies from time to time, including in 2022, to consist of the following set of peers for purposes of reviewing and considering our executive officers’ 2022 base salaries, target annual cash incentive award opportunities and annual equity awards. The Compensation Committee believes that this compensation peer group accurately reflected the Company’s growth, opportunities and current market positioning. This group consisted of technology companies that the Compensation Committee determined operate within our industry, compete with us for talent, or are located in the same general geographic area. Other factors considered include comparable revenues, market capitalization and projected revenue growth. In connection with its review, the Compensation Committee removed four peer companies for 2022 – Etsy, Paylocity and TrueCar because they fell outside of the comparable revenue and market capitalization ranges and Grubhub was removed because it was acquired.

The following companies were used by the Compensation Committee during 2022 as our compensation peer group:

 

Alarm.com Holdings, Inc.

EverQuote, Inc.

Qualys, Inc.

Wayfair Inc.

Bottomline Technologies Inc.

HubSpot, Inc.

Rapid7, Inc.

Yelp Inc.

Cars.com Inc.

Lending Tree, Inc.

Redfin Corporation

Yext, Inc.

Cerence Inc.*

New Relic, Inc.

Shutterstock, Inc.*

 

Everbridge, Inc.

Pegasystems Inc.

Tripadvisor, Inc.

 

*Represents new addition to peer group.

The Compensation Committee considered both Compensia’s market analysis and compensation data drawn internally from publicly-available proxy statements and industry-specific survey data for this compensation peer group as reference points for its 2022 executive compensation decisions. While the Compensation Committee takes into account peer company compensation practices, the Compensation Committee uses this information as one of many factors in its deliberations on compensation matters and does not set compensation levels to meet specific percentiles.

The Compensation Committee reviews the analyses prepared internally and by a compensation consultant based on the compensation data drawn from a compensation peer group to develop a subjective representation of the "competitive market" with respect to current executive compensation levels and related policies and practices. The Compensation Committee then evaluates how our pay practices and the compensation levels of our executive officers compare to the competitive market. As part of this evaluation, the Compensation Committee also reviews the performance measures and performance goals generally used within the competitive market to reward performance.

Management and the Compensation Committee strive to incorporate flexibility into our executive compensation program and the assessment process to respond to and adjust for the evolving business environment and the value delivered by our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers.

Elements of Executive Compensation

The 2022 compensation program for our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, consisted of three principal components:

annual base salary;
annual cash incentive awards; and
long-term incentive compensation in the form of RSU awards that are settled in shares of our Class A common stock.

The following charts illustrate the composition of the 2022 total direct compensation for Mr. Trevisan on a weighted-average basis and for our other Named Executive Officers in aggregate as comprised of annual base salary, annual cash incentive award opportunities and long-term incentive compensation in the form of equity awards. These compensation elements are considered to be performance-based, or "at-risk," with the exception of base salary.

 

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2022 CEO Total Compensation Mix(1)

https://cdn.kscope.io/d4c77e116516c39e98949729a618fb60-img197412417_5.jpg 

(1)
Consists of Mr. Trevisan’s 2022 annualized base salary, Mr. Trevisan’s annual cash incentive award paid for 2022 performance as well as the modification expense associated with the 2022 PSU Amendment. Due to the size of the equity grant date fair value awarded in 2021 upon his appointment as Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Trevisan did not receive a new equity award in 2022.
(2)
For our Named Executive Officers other than Mr. Trevisan, consists of these individuals’ average 2022 actual base salaries, annual cash incentive awards paid for 2022 performance, the grant date fair values of the equity awards granted in 2022, the modification expense associated with the 2022 PSU Amendment, and other compensation. At Mr. Steinert's request, to demonstrate his confidence in the Company and to continue to align his interests with those of our stockholders, the Compensation Committee maintained Mr. Steinert's annual base salary of $10,000 for 2022. At Mr. Steinert's request, to demonstrate his confidence in the Company and to continue to align his interests with those of our stockholders, the Compensation Committee continued to consider Mr. Steinert ineligible to receive an annual cash incentive award for his 2022 performance.

Base Salary

Annual base salary represents the fixed portion of the compensation of our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, and is an important element of compensation intended to attract and retain highly-talented individuals. Generally, we use annual base salary to provide each executive officer with a specified level of cash compensation during the year with the expectation that the executives will perform their responsibilities to the best of their abilities and in our best interests.

Generally, the Compensation Committee reviews the annual base salaries of our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, at the beginning of each year and at that time establishes the annual base salary for that fiscal year as it determines to be necessary or appropriate. Typically, the Compensation Committee sets annual base salaries of our executive officers at levels that it believes are competitive with current market practices with reference to our compensation peer group (other than Mr. Steinert whose annual base salary is intentionally set lower than current market practices) after taking into consideration each individual executive officer’s role, responsibilities, qualifications, experience, past performance and expected future contributions, prior annual base salary with the Company and the annual base salary levels of our other executive officers (other than Mr. Steinert). The Compensation Committee does not apply specific formulas to determine annual base salary amounts.

In February 2022, the Compensation Committee reviewed the annual base salary of each of our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers. The Compensation Committee considered Compensia’s competitive market analysis, including a comparison of our Named Executive Officers’ annual base salaries to those of executives holding comparable positions at the companies in our compensation peer group, as well as its own assessment of our 2021 performance and the other factors described above. Based on this review, the Compensation Committee determined that it was appropriate to set the annual base salaries of our Named Executive Officers for 2022 as follows:

Named Executive Officer

2021 Base Salary

2022 Base Salary(1)

Percentage Increase(4)

Mr. Trevisan

$ 540,000

$ 556,200

3%

Mr. Fredo(2)

$ 315,000

$ 385,000

22%

Mr. Steinert(3)

$ 10,000

$ 10,000

0%

Mr. Quinn

N/A

$ 325,000

N/A

Ms. Eldridge

$ 325,000

$ 335,000

3.1%

(1)
These annual base salaries were effective as of January 1, 2022, except for Mr. Quinn, who commenced employment with the Company on January 3, 2022.

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(2)
Mr. Fredo resigned from the Company effective as of October 3, 2022.
(3)
At Mr. Steinert's request, to demonstrate his confidence in the Company and to continue to align his interests with those of our stockholders, the Compensation Committee maintained Mr. Steinert's annual base salary of $10,000 for 2022.
(4)
The Compensation Committee awarded base merit salary increases for 2022 to our Named Executive Officers after its annual review of our compensation program. Mr. Fredo received a 22% increase based on his past performance, his time in his role and a market adjustment to align better with our peer group levels.

The actual base salaries paid to our Named Executive Officers in 2022 are set forth in the "Summary Compensation Table" below.

Cash Incentive Awards

In 2022, we provided our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers other than Mr. Steinert, with the opportunity to earn cash incentive awards to encourage the achievement of our corporate performance objectives and to reward those individuals who significantly impact our corporate results based on the objectives set forth in our annual operating plan. The Compensation Committee determines and approves cash incentive award decisions for our executive officers.

In February 2018, the Compensation Committee approved the CarGurus, Inc. Annual Incentive Plan (the "Annual Incentive Plan"), providing an opportunity for certain of our salaried employees, including our Named Executive Officers, to earn annual cash incentive awards, as described below. Pursuant to the Annual Incentive Plan, each participant is eligible to receive a cash incentive award for the relevant fiscal year based on our level of achievement of one or more pre-established business and financial performance goals and the participant’s individual performance goals, if applicable, during such fiscal year. The amount actually paid to a participant could be more or less than the participant’s target award, depending on the extent to which applicable performance goals were satisfied. Participants, including our Named Executive Officers, will not receive a payout for any performance measure that fails to achieve threshold level criteria.

In February 2022, the Compensation Committee established the 2022 performance measures and related target performance levels, as well as the corresponding weighting for each measure, for our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers other than Mr. Steinert, under the Annual Incentive Plan (the "2022 Annual Incentive Plan"). The 2022 Annual Incentive Plan design was unchanged from 2021.

Target Cash Incentive Award Opportunities

Under the Annual Incentive Plan, each participant’s actual annual cash incentive award is calculated, in part, by reference to a target annual cash incentive award opportunity based on either a percentage of the participant’s annual base salary for the fiscal year or a specified dollar amount, in the case of our executive officers, as determined by the Compensation Committee. To set the target annual cash incentive award opportunities of our Named Executive Officers for 2022, the Compensation Committee considered Compensia’s competitive market analysis, including a comparison of our Named Executive Officers’ target cash incentive award opportunities to those executives holding comparable positions at the companies in our compensation peer group, as well as its own assessment of our 2021 performance and the other factors described in "Elements of Executive Compensation – Base Salary" above. In February 2022, the Compensation Committee determined to set the target annual cash incentive award opportunities of our Named Executive Officers for 2022 as follows:

 

Named Executive Officer

Target Cash Incentive
Award Opportunity

Target Cash Incentive
Award Opportunity
(as a percentage of
annual base salary)

Percentage Change
from 2021 Target Cash
Incentive Award
Opportunity
(3)

Mr. Trevisan

$ 500,000

90%

6%

Mr. Fredo(1)

$ 280,000

73%

40%

Mr. Steinert(2)

Mr. Quinn

$ 205,000

63%

N/A

Ms. Eldridge

$ 200,000

61%

2.5%

 

(1)
Mr. Fredo resigned from the Company effective as of October 3, 2022.
(2)
At Mr. Steinert's request, to demonstrate his confidence in the Company and to continue to align his interests with those of our stockholders, the Compensation Committee continued to consider Mr. Steinert ineligible to receive an annual cash incentive award for his 2022 performance.
(3)
The Compensation Committee determined our Named Executive Officers target cash incentive award opportunities for 2022 as a part of its annual practice of conducting a market review of peer group executive pay practices. The Compensation Committee considered that higher target cash incentive award opportunities means more at-risk compensation. Mr. Fredo's target cash incentive award was determined based on his past performance, his time in his role and a market adjustment from his 2021 target incentive cash award to align better with our peer group levels. Mr. Quinn's

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target cash incentive award was determined following the Compensation Committee's evaluation of peer group data on others in similar Chief Technology Officer positions.

The amount actually paid to a participant could be more or less than the participant’s target annual cash incentive award, depending on the extent to which applicable performance goals were satisfied. Consistent with prior years, for 2022, the Compensation Committee determined that annual incentive awards for such year would be paid to our executive officers in two installments rather than in one lump sum, whereby (i) 40% of each executive officer’s target annual cash incentive award opportunity would be made in an initial lump sum payment following completion of our second fiscal quarter of 2022 (the "First Half 2022 Payment") and (ii) the remainder of each executive officer’s full-year annual cash incentive award would be paid in a lump sum payment following the end of the 2022 fiscal year based on the Compensation Committee’s evaluation of our actual performance for the full fiscal year as measured against the achievement of the pre-established corporate and individual performance goals described below (the "Second Half 2022 Payment"). The Compensation Committee has traditionally determined that annual incentive awards would be paid in two installments to align with the incentive plan for our broader employee base, which awards a portion of employees bonuses out mid-year for retention purposes.

Corporate Strategic and Organizational Goals

Our Board of Directors approves annual strategic and organizational initiatives for the Company, which are formulated by management to reflect the Company's goals for that year, and the Compensation Committee utilizes these initiatives as the business performance goals upon which annual cash incentive award payments are based. The 2022 strategic and organizational initiatives involved optimizing marketplace growth along with the launch and scale of our digital retail and wholesale businesses, including Instant Max Cash Offer, activities related to employee engagement and enablement, and the build out of our organizational capabilities. Each of these initiative categories involved one or more quantitative and qualitative metrics as established by our management that had to be successfully completed for that portion of the initiative to be considered achieved. For 2022, the threshold, target, and maximum performance levels for the number of strategic and organizational initiatives achieved and the corresponding payout levels on a sliding scale under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan were established as follows:

 

Performance Measure

Performance Level

Payout Percentage

Strategic and Organizational Initiatives

Threshold (33%)(1)

50%

Target (70%)

100%

Maximum (100%)

150%

(1)
There is no payout under the strategic and organizational initiatives performance measure for performance that does not meet the threshold level criteria.

Corporate Financial Performance Goals

In addition, the Compensation Committee selected gross profit and adjusted earnings before interest and taxes ("EBIT"), a non-U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") financial measure, as the financial performance measurements for the fiscal year. For 2022, the threshold, target, and maximum performance levels for gross profit and adjusted EBIT, as set forth in our annual operating plan, and the corresponding payout levels on a sliding scale for achievement of such measures under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan, were established as follows:

 

Performance Measure

Performance Level

Payout Percentage

Gross Profit

Threshold (95%)

50%

Target (100%)

100%

Maximum (105%)

200%

Adjusted EBIT

Threshold (90%)

50%

Target (100%)

100%

Maximum (110%)

150%

We calculate "adjusted EBIT" as GAAP consolidated net income, adjusted to exclude: depreciation and amortization, impairment of long-lived assets, stock-based compensation expense, acquisition-related expenses, other income, net, the provision for income taxes, and net income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest.

The Compensation Committee determined that, for purposes of the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan, these corporate financial measures were the most appropriate performance measures to use in determining cash incentive awards because, in its view, they were the best indicators of our successful execution of our annual operating plan. Thus, the threshold performance levels for these corporate performance goals were the minimum performance levels that had to be achieved before participants could earn any annual cash incentive awards relating to this measure. If the threshold performance goal for a particular measure was not achieved, then no award payments would be made under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan with respect to such measure.

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The above-referenced performance objectives should not be interpreted as a prediction of how we will perform in future periods. As described above, the purpose of these objectives was to establish a method for determining the payment of annual cash incentive compensation in 2022 You are cautioned not to rely on these performance goals as a prediction of our future performance.

Individual Performance Goals

For purposes of the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan, the Compensation Committee authorized (i) Mr. Steinert to establish one or more individual performance goals for Mr. Trevisan’s annual cash incentive award opportunity and (ii) Mr. Trevisan to establish one or more individual performance goals for each executive officer, including each Named Executive Officer other than Mr. Steinert and himself, as part of the executive’s annual cash incentive award opportunity. As part of our annual performance evaluation process, Messrs. Steinert and Trevisan, after consultation with Mr. Trevisan or each other executive officer, respectively, established the executive’s performance goals for the fiscal year. These performance goals were not intended to be formulaic, but rather to serve as the framework upon which Messrs. Steinert and Trevisan could evaluate the applicable executive officer’s overall performance. Such performance goals were established with reference to each individual executive officer’s position or function within the Company and included operational metrics that could reflect corporate or departmental goals or could include specific operational goals with respect to the executive’s area of responsibility. These performance goals also included the demonstration of leadership and effective decision-making, effective communication, promotion of our strategic and organizational initiatives and values, and commitment to excellence and work ethic and could include more specific objectives for the executive officer, such as the successful completion of major projects and organization capability building.

For our executive officers other than Mr. Steinert in 2022, the Compensation Committee established performance ratings for the individual performance goals achieved and the corresponding payout levels under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan as follows:

 

Performance Measure

Performance Rating

Payout Percentage

Individual Performance Goals

Developing

40 – 80%

Strong

100 – 115%

Leading

115 – 130%

Outstanding

130 – 150%

Our executive officers other than Mr. Steinert were subject to reviews conducted by their respective direct managers at the conclusion of the 2022 fiscal year (or, in the case of Mr. Fredo, prior to his separation from the Company) to evaluate their performance for such year. These evaluations were the basis for the assessment of their performance rating against the pre-established individual performance goals.

Weighting of Performance Goals

In February 2022, in connection with establishing the corporate performance goals for the fiscal year, the Compensation Committee also determined the relative weighting for our executive officers (other than Mr. Steinert) with respect to the business and financial performance goals and the individual performance goals. For purposes of the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan, the weighting of the performance goals for our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers other than Mr. Steinert, was as follows:

Performance Measure

Weighting

Strategic Initiatives

25%

Gross Profit

30%

Adjusted EBIT

15%

Individual Performance Goals

30%

2022 Annual Incentive Award Results

In July 2022, the Compensation Committee approved the First Half 2022 Payments for our Named Executive Officers as follows:
 

Named Executive Officer

Actual Cash Incentive Award
for First Half of 2022 Payment
(40% of Annual Target Award)

Mr. Trevisan

$ 200,000

Mr. Fredo(1)

$ 112,000

Mr. Steinert(2)

Mr. Quinn(3)

$ 79,116

Ms. Eldridge

$ 82,000

 

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(1)
Mr. Fredo's resignation from the Company, which was effective as of October 3, 2022, had no impact on his First Half of 2022 Payment.
(2)
At Mr. Steinert's request, to demonstrate his confidence in the Company and to continue to align his interests with those of our stockholders, the Compensation Committee continued to consider Mr. Steinert ineligible to receive an annual cash incentive award for his 2022 performance.
(3)
Mr. Quinn's employment with the Company began effective as of January 3, 2022. His annual cash incentive award for his 2022 performance was prorated.

In February 2023, the Compensation Committee determined the Second Half 2022 Payments to be paid to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, other than Mr. Steinert under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan. The Compensation Committee determined the Second Half 2022 Payments based on the appropriate total amounts to be paid to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers other than Mr. Steinert, under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan based on our actual performance for the 2022 fiscal year with respect to each corporate performance goal and each executive officer’s individual performance against the executive’s distinct performance goals. For 2022, the actual results against the targets set for the corporate components under the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan were as follows:

Performance Measure

    Achievement Percentage or Rating

        Payout Percentage

Strategic Initiatives

52%

76%

Gross Profit

95%

50%(2)

Adjusted EBIT

90%

50%(2)

Individual Performance Goals

(1)

(1)

(1)
Performance ratings and corresponding payout percentages for each Named Executive Officer varied based on the 2022 performance reviews conducted for each such individual.
(2)
Gross Profit and Adjusted EBIT actual achievement fell below the benchmark for any payout percentage. Given the impact this result would have had on the integrity of the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan, the Compensation Committee approved 2022 incentive payments based on a payout percentage at 50%.

In order to protect the integrity of the 2022 Annual Incentive Plan, the Compensation Committee also approved a 9% upward adjustment to actual cash incentive award payments. As a result, the target annual cash incentive award opportunities and the actual cash incentive award payments (inclusive of the First Half 2022 Payments) made to our Named Executive Officers (other than Mr. Steinert) for 2022 were as follows:

Named Executive Officer

Target Annual
Cash Incentive
Award

Actual Annual
Cash Incentive
Award

Percentage of
Target Annual
Cash Incentive
Award Actually
Paid

Mr. Trevisan

$ 500,000

$ 432,480

86.5%

Mr. Fredo(1)

$ 280,000

$ 112,000

40.0%

Mr. Steinert(2)

Mr. Quinn(3)

$ 198,904

$ 175,028

88.0%

Ms. Eldridge

$ 205,000

$ 171,167

83.5%

 

(1)
Mr. Fredo’s employment with the Company ended as of October 3, 2022. As a result, he only received a First Half of 2022 Payment.
(2)
At Mr. Steinert's request, to demonstrate his confidence in the Company and to continue to align his interests with those of our stockholders, the Compensation Committee continue to consider Mr. Steinert ineligible to receive an annual cash incentive award for his 2022 performance.
(3)
Mr. Quinn's employment with the Company began effective as of January 3, 2022. His annual cash incentive award for his 2022 performance was prorated.

The annual cash incentive award payments made to our Named Executive Officers for 2022 are set forth in the "Summary Compensation Table" below.

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Long-Term Incentive Compensation

Historically and during 2022, we have used RSU awards with time-based vesting requirements to retain, motivate and reward our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, for long-term increases in the value of our Class A common stock and, thereby, to align their interests with those of our stockholders. In 2021, we expanded the form of equity awards granted to our executive officers to include performance-based RSU awards and NQSO awards in order to supplement the time-based RSU awards granted to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, and in an effort to further align our executive officers’ interests with the long-term interests of our stockholders. However, in 2022 the Compensation Committee determined to (i) amend the vesting terms of the performance-based RSU awards granted in 2021 and 2022 from performance-based to time-based with retrospective effect to the date of grant; and (ii) grant time-based RSU awards in lieu of performance-based RSU awards and NQSO awards, as it believes time-based RSU awards most effectively links pay versus performance by offering incentives to our executives that are not overly reactive to current market volatility, and serves as a compelling means of retaining our important talent in a competitive market, thus making it in the best long-term interests of our stockholders. See "Modification of 2021 and 2022 Performance-Based Equity Grants" above for more information regarding the amended performance-based RSU awards.

Typically, the size and form of the equity awards granted to our existing or newly-hired executive officers are determined in the discretion of the Compensation Committee at a level that it believes is competitive with current market practices (with reference to our compensation peer group) and after taking into consideration each individual executive officer’s role and the scope of responsibilities, qualifications, experience, past performance and expected future contributions, current equity holdings and the potential equity awards to be granted to our other executive officers.

For its determination of the size and form of equity awards to issue to our executive officers in 2022, the Compensation Committee considered Compensia’s competitive market analysis, including a review of equity awards granted to executives holding comparable positions at the companies in our compensation peer group, as well as its own assessment of our 2021 performance and the other factors described in "Elements of Executive Compensation – Base Salary" above. Additionally, while we typically grant equity awards to our executive officers on an annual basis, the Compensation Committee previously determined to increase the size of the 2021 award granted to Mr. Trevisan to cover the value of awards he would otherwise receive through 2024. As a result, the Compensation Committee has indicated that it does not currently contemplate that Mr. Trevisan would be eligible for another equity grant in respect of long-term incentive compensation until 2025. Based on this review, the Compensation Committee granted the following equity awards to our Named Executive Officers in February 2022:

Time-Based RSU Awards

Named Executive Officer

RSU Award

(number of shares)

RSU Award

(grant date fair value)(1)

Mr. Trevisan

0

Mr. Fredo

64,506(2)

$ 2,249,969

Mr. Steinert

71,674(2)

$ 2,499,989

Mr. Quinn

28,571(3)

$ 999,985

Ms. Eldridge

48,738(2)

$ 1,699,981

(1)
The amounts reported represent the grant date fair value of the time-based RSU awards, as computed in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s ASC Topic 718 ("FASB ASC Topic 718"), which excludes the impact of estimated forfeitures related to service-based vesting conditions, reflects the accounting cost for the equity awards, and does not correspond to the actual economic value that may be received by our Named Executive Officers from the equity awards.
(2)
Annual retention award, vesting as follows: 6.25% of the RSUs subject to the award vests on the date that is three months following the vesting commencement date of January 1, 2022 and 6.25% of the RSUs subject to the award vests on the last day of each three-month period thereafter until the fourth anniversary of the vesting commencement date, contingent upon such Named Executive Officer remaining continuously employed by us through each applicable vesting date.
(3)
New hire award, vesting as follows: 25% of the RSUs subject to the award vests on the one-year anniversary of the vesting commencement date of January 3, 2022 and 6.25% of the RSUs subject to the award vests on the last day of each three-month period thereafter until the fourth anniversary of the vesting commencement date, contingent upon Mr. Quinn remaining continuously employed by us through each applicable vesting date.

Upon vesting, all of the RSU awards presented in the tables above will be settled by issuing the number of shares of our Class A common stock that have vested on such date. In addition, as described above, all such RSU awards provide for acceleration of vesting in the event the executive officer’s employment is terminated by us without cause or by the executive officer for good reason within 12 months following a qualifying change of control of the Company.

 

New Hire Equity Awards

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Mr. Quinn’s employment with the Company commenced prior to the PSU Amendment. Accordingly, as part of his new hire compensation, Mr. Quinn received equity awards in the form of timed-based RSUs, NQSOs and performance-based RSU awards. Specifically, 50% of the value of the equity awards granted to Mr. Quinn was awarded in the form of time-based RSU awards, 25% of the value was awarded in the form of performance-based RSU awards, and the remaining 25% of the value was awarded in the form of NQSOs. At grant, the Compensation Committee contemplated that the time-based RSU awards and NQSOs would vest quarterly over four years while the performance-based RSU awards would be earned and vest, if at all, at the end of three- and four-year performance periods ending on December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2024, respectively, based on the change in our total stockholder return ("TSR") compared to the TSR growth of the companies that comprise the S&P 500 Index as of the day before the applicable performance period (the "PSU Peer Group Companies"). Because the value of these equity awards increases with any increase in the value of the underlying shares of Class A common stock, the awards provide incentives to Mr. Quinn that are aligned with the interests of our stockholders. The time-based RSU awards granted to Mr. Quinn in 2022 are disclosed above under "Time-Based RSU Awards."

Performance-Based RSU Awards

The Compensation Committee granted the following performance-based RSUs to Mr. Quinn in January 2022 at a level that it believed was competitive with current market practices (with reference to our compensation peer group) and after taking into consideration Mr. Quinn's role and the scope of responsibilities, qualifications, experience, past performance and expected future contributions, current equity holdings and the potential equity awards to be granted to our other executive officers.

 

Named Executive Officer

RSU Award

(number of shares)

RSU Award

(grant date fair value)(1)

Mr. Quinn

14,285(2)

$ 700,250

(1)
The amounts reported reflect the value of the performance-based RSU awards at the grant date based upon the grant date fair value determined utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation model, a generally accepted statistical technique used, in this instance, to simulate a range of possible future prices for the Company and the PSU Peer Group Companies over the applicable performance periods under the performance-based RSU awards, which reflects the accounting cost for the equity awards, and does not correspond to the actual economic value that may be received by our Named Executive Officers from the equity awards.
(2)
New hire award, vesting on each of December 31, 2024 and December 31, 2025. The total number of shares of our Class A common stock issuable on each such vesting date is based on our TSR compared to a pre-established relative TSR goal, with the maximum number of shares of our Class A common stock issuable on each such vesting date equal to the product of (i) 200% and (ii) one-half of the number of shares reported herein. After giving effect to the 2022 PSU Amendment, the vesting is treated as a time-based vested award, with 25% of the RSUs subject to the award vesting on the one-year anniversary of the vesting commencement date of December 1, 2021 and 6.25% of the RSUs subject to the award vesting on the last day of each three-month period thereafter until the fourth anniversary of the vesting commencement date, contingent upon Mr. Quinn remaining continuously employed by us through each applicable vesting date.
(3)
The vesting terms of the above performance-based RSUs were amended to timed-based RSUs in February 2022 pursuant to the 2022 PSU Amendment. See "Modification of 2021 and 2022 Performance-Based Equity Grants" above for more information regarding the amended performance-based RSU awards.

NQSO Awards

The Compensation Committee granted the following NQSO awards to Mr. Quinn in January 2022 at a level that it believed was competitive with current market practices (with reference to our compensation peer group) and after taking into consideration Mr. Quinn's role and the scope of responsibilities, qualifications, experience, past performance and expected future contributions, current equity holdings and the potential equity awards to be granted to our other executive officers.

 

Named Executive Officer

NQSO Award

(number of shares)

NQSO Award

(grant date fair value)(1)

Mr. Quinn

30,266(2)

$ 499,994

(1)
The amounts reported represent the grant date fair value of the NQSO awards, as computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, which excludes the impact of estimated forfeitures related to service-based vesting conditions, reflects the accounting cost for the equity awards, and does not correspond to the actual economic value that may be received by our Named Executive Officers from the equity awards.
(2)
New hire award, vesting as follows: 25% of the shares of our Class A common stock underlying this NQSO award vests on the one-year anniversary of the vesting commencement date of December 1, 2021 and 6.25% of the shares of our Class A common stock underlying this award vests on the last day of each three-month period thereafter until the fourth

36


anniversary of the vesting commencement date, contingent upon Mr. Quinn remaining continuously employed by us through each applicable vesting date.

Upon vesting, all of the RSU and NQSO awards presented in the tables above will be settled by issuing the number of shares of our Class A common stock that have vested (and, in the case of NQSOs, exercised) on such date. In addition, all such RSU and NQSO awards provide for acceleration of vesting in the event the executive officer’s employment is terminated by us without cause or by the executive officer for good reason within 12 months following a qualifying change of control of the Company.

The equity awards granted to our Named Executive Officers in 2022 are set forth in the "Summary Compensation Table" and the "Grants of Plan-Based Awards Table" below.

Welfare and Health Benefits

We have established a broad-based tax-qualified savings plan under Section 401(k) of the Code for our eligible U.S. employees, including our executive officers, who satisfy certain eligibility requirements, including requirements relating to age and length of service. Currently, we match contributions made to the plan by our employees as follows: 50% of an employee’s calendar-year contributions, up to a maximum of 8% of the employee’s cash compensation paid during the period. Mandatory matching contributions may be subject to vesting based on an employee’s start date and length of service. Employees can designate the investment of their Section 401(k) accounts into a broad range of mutual funds. We do not allow investment in our common stock through the Section 401(k) plan. We intend for the plan to qualify under Section 401(a) of the Code so that contributions by employees to the plan, and income earned on plan contributions, are not taxable to employees until withdrawn from the plan.

In addition, our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, are eligible to receive the same employee benefits that are generally available to all of our U.S. CarGurus employees, subject to the satisfaction of certain eligibility requirements. These benefits include medical, dental and vision coverage, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, flexible hybrid work schedules or remote work on a case-by-case basis, employee assistance programs, short term and long term disability insurance and term life insurance, as well as paid access to certain wellness and family care resources.

In structuring our employee benefit programs, we seek to provide an aggregate level of benefits that are competitive with those provided by similar companies, compliant with applicable laws and practices and affordable to our employees. We adjust these programs as needed based upon regular monitoring of applicable laws and practices, the competitive market and our employees’ needs.

Perquisites and Other Personal Benefits

We do not view perquisites or other personal benefits as a significant component of our executive compensation program. Accordingly, we do not provide significant perquisites or other personal benefits to our executive officers, including our Named Executive Officers, except as generally made available to our employees, or in situations where we believe it is appropriate to assist an individual in the performance of the individual’s duties, to make our executive officers more efficient and effective and for recruitment and retention purposes. During 2022, we provided Mr. Trevisan with a supplemental commuting benefit to and from our offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts to allow him to more efficiently use commuting hours for business purposes. The amounts associated with this benefit are reflected in the "Summary Compensation Table" below.

In the future, we may provide perquisites or other personal benefits in limited circumstances, such as those described in the preceding paragraph. All future practices with respect to perquisites or other personal benefits for our executive officers will be approved and subject to periodic review by the Compensation Committee.

Employment Arrangements

We have entered into employment offer letters with each of our executive officers. For a summary of the material terms and conditions of our employment arrangements with our Named Executive Officers, see "Executive Employment Arrangements" below.

Post-Employment Compensation Arrangements

The employment offer letters with certain of our executive officers provide for certain protections in the event of their termination of employment under specified circumstances. We believe that these protections were necessary to induce these individuals to forego other opportunities or leave their then-current employment for the uncertainty of a demanding position in a new and unfamiliar organization. We also believe that these arrangements continue to serve our executive retention objectives by helping these executive officers maintain continued focus and dedication to their responsibility to maximize stockholder value.

For a summary of the material terms and conditions of the post-employment compensation arrangements with our Named Executive Officers, see "Executive Employment Arrangements" below. For an estimate of the value of payments and benefits that our Named Executive Officers would have been eligible to receive if a hypothetical change of control or other trigger event had occurred on December 31, 2022, see "Potential Payments upon Termination of Employment or Change in Control" below.

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Other Compensation Policies

Hedging and Pledging Policy

Our Insider Trading Policy prohibits our non-employee directors, executive officers, employees, and certain other persons as may be designated by the administrator of such policy from engaging in short sales of our securities, buying or selling puts or calls or other derivative securities on our securities or entering into hedging or monetization transactions or similar arrangements with respect to our securities without prior approval from the policy administrator. In addition, our Insider Trading Policy prohibits our non-employee directors, executive officers, and certain other persons as may be designated by the administrator of such policy from holding our securities in a margin account or pledging our securities as collateral for a loan without prior approval from the policy administrator.

Compensation Clawback Policy

Our Board of Directors has adopted the Clawback Policy, which provides that if we are required to prepare an accounting restatement due to the material non-compliance with any financial reporting requirement, then our Board of Directors (or a committee thereof) may take, in its discretion, such actions as it deems necessary to recover from any executive officer or other current or former employee that is covered by the policy (i.e., an individual that our Board of Directors determines has contributed to the restatement through willful misconduct, fraud or a breach of a fiduciary duty) (a "Covered Person") any incentive-based equity compensation received by such individual during the previous three years that is determined to be in excess of the amount the individual would have received if such compensation had been calculated based on the restated financial statements. The Clawback Policy also provides for the recovery of excess incentive-based cash and equity compensation from a Covered Person that our Board of Directors (or a committee thereof) determines, in its discretion, has engaged in "Detrimental Conduct" (i.e., willful misconduct, fraud, the violation of a law or regulation, or non-compliance with Company policies that (in the case of each of the foregoing) has resulted, or is reasonably likely to result, in a material adverse impact on our financial results, operations or reputation), to the extent such compensation was granted during the one-year period preceding the date of the Detrimental Conduct or any time thereafter.

In October 2022, the SEC adopted new Rule 10D-1 under the Exchange Act, which requires national securities exchanges, including Nasdaq, to establish listing standards related to executive officer compensation clawback and disclosure rules. The Company intends to monitor the development and adoption of Nasdaq’s final listing standards and, if needed, amend our current clawback policy as appropriate in accordance with the requirements of Nasdaq’s final listing standards.

Tax and Accounting Considerations

Deductibility of Executive Compensation

In determining executive compensation, the Compensation Committee considers the possible income tax consequences to the Company and to our executive officers. To maintain maximum flexibility in designing our executive compensation program, the Compensation Committee, while considering tax deductibility as one factor in determining compensation, does not limit compensation to those levels or types of compensation that are intended to be deductible.

Generally, Section 162(m) of the Code disallows a federal income tax deduction for public corporations of remuneration in excess of $1 million paid for any fiscal year to certain current or former executive officers. To maintain flexibility to compensate our executive officers in a manner designed to promote our short-term and long-term corporate goals and objectives, the Compensation Committee has not adopted a policy that all compensation must be deductible. Therefore, the Compensation Committee may approve base salaries and other compensation awards for our executive officers that may not be fully deductible because of the deduction limit of Section 162(m).

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation

We follow FASB ASC Topic 718 for our stock-based compensation awards. FASB ASC Topic 718 requires us to measure the compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to our employees and non-employee members of our Board of Directors, including RSU awards that may be settled in shares of our Class A common stock, options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock and other stock awards, based on the grant date "fair value" of these awards. For options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock, the grant date fair value is determined utilizing the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, a generally accepted option valuation methodology. For performance-based (also referred to by us as "market-based" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022) RSU awards, the grant date fair value is determined utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation model, a generally accepted statistical technique used, in this instance, to simulate a range of possible future prices for the Company and the PSU Peer Group Companies over the applicable performance periods under the performance-based RSU awards. We no longer have any outstanding performance-based RSUs following the 2022 PSU Amendment.

This calculation is performed for accounting purposes and reported in the executive compensation tables required by the federal securities laws, even though the recipient of the awards may never realize any value from their awards. FASB ASC Topic 718 also requires us to recognize the compensation cost of our stock-based compensation awards in our income statements over the period that an employee or director is required to render service in exchange for an RSU award, stock option or other stock award.

 

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Executive Compensation

Summary Compensation Table

The following table presents for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the compensation paid or awarded to, or earned by, our Named Executive Officers.

Name and

Principal Position

Year

Salary

($)

Bonus

($)

Stock
Awards

($)(1)

NQSO
Awards

($)(2)

Non-Equity
Incentive

Plan
Compensation

($)

All Other

Compensation

($)

Total

($)

Jason Trevisan

Chief Executive Officer

2022

556,200

542,278(3)

432,480(4)

13,158(5)

1,547,116

2021

540,000

13,512,566

4,499,992

640,882(6)

17,810

19,211,250

2020

382,813

2,673,612

335,893(7)

5,000

3,397,317

Scot Fredo(9)

Former Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Secretary

2022

290,354(10)

2,249,969

112,000(11)

15,138(12)

2,667,461

2021

315,000

1,785,713

499,990

262,560(6)

5,000

2,868,263

2020

Langley Steinert

Executive Chairman

2022

10,000

2,575,722(13)

2,585,722

2021

10,000

1,876,728

625,000

2,511,728

2020

10,000

2,291,672

2,301,672

Matthew Quinn

Chief Technology Officer

2022

325,000

1,700,235

499,994

175,028(4)

33,569(14)

2,733,826

2021

2020